Tin

Today we’re looking at the words for tin and related things in Celtic languages.

Tin Mines
Botallack tin mine in Cornwall

Proto-Celtic *stagnos = tin
Gaulish *stagnom = tin
Old Irish (Goídelc) stán [mʲeːnʲ] = tin, tin vessel
Irish (Gaeilge) stán = tin, tin vessel
stánach = tin-bearing, stannic
stánadóir = tinner, tinsmith
stánadóireacht = tin-work, (act of) tinkering
stánaigh = to tin, to coat with tin, to pack in tin(s)
stáncheárta = tinworks
stánphláta = tin-plate
stántáirgeach = tin-bearing
stánúil = tinny, stannous
feadóg stáin = tin whistle
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) staoin [sdɯːn̪ʲ] = tin, pewter
stàin [sdɯːn̪ʲ] = tin
stànadair = tinsmith, tinker
staoinseil = tinsel
fìdeag-staoin = tin whistle
muileann-staoin = tin mill
sgragall-staoine = tinfoil
Manx (Gaelg) stainney = tin, can, tin-plate
stainnagh = tin-bearing
stainnaghey = to tin-plate
stainneyder = tin-miner
stainnit = tin-plated
stainn-oshleyder, fosleyder stainney = tin-opener
feddan (stainney) = tin whistle, flageolot
gaaue stainney = tinner, tinsmith
Proto-Brythonic *staɨn = tin
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) stain, ystain, staen, ystaen = tin, pewter
Welsh (Cymraeg) ystaen, staen = tin, pewter
ystaenaid, staenaid = tinned, tin
ystaenwr, ystaeniwr = pewterer, tinsmith
Cornish (Kernewek) sten [stɛːn / steːn] = tin
stenek = tin ground, stannary
stenor = tinner
sten du = tin ore
poll sten = tin pit
Middle Breton sten, stean, staen = tin
Breton (Brezhoneg) staen = tin
staenañ = to tinplate
staenek = stannic (of or containing tin)
staenus = stannous (of or containing tin)

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: probably from the Proto-Indo-European *sth₂gʰ-nó-s (standing, firm), from *steh₂-gʰ- + *-nós, from *steh₂- (to stand) [source].

The Latin word stannum (an alloy of silver and lead; tin) was borrowed from the Gaulish *stagnom, and words for tin in Romance languages developed from this, including étain in French, stagno in Italian, and estaño in Spanish [source].

The scientific abbreviation for tin is Sn, from the Latin stannum. The old Latin name for tin was plumbum candidum (white lead) [source].

Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tiona = tin (container, metal)
á tiona = tinned, from a tin
crogan-tiona = tin can/td>
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tynn, tin, tinn = tin, tin plate
Welsh (Cymraeg) tun, tyn = tin (metal / container), tin plate, tin can
tunio, tuniaf = to tin, coat with tin, seal in a tin
tun tân = blower, metal plate placed before an open fire to increase the draught
tun te = tin used by workmen to carry leaf tea (and sugar) to work

Etymology: from the English tin, from the Middle English tin, tyn(e), tynne (tin), from the Old English tin (tin), from the Proto-Germanic *tiną (tin), probably from a pre-Indo-European language [source].

Words for tin in Germanic languages come from the same Proto-Germanic root, including tin in Dutch, Zinn in German, tenn in Swedish, and tinn in Norwegian, as do words for tin in some Slavic and Finno-Ugric languages [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Metal

Today we’re looking at the words for metal, ore, mines and related things in Celtic languages.

The cave at Parys mountain.

Proto-Celtic *mēnis = ore, metal, mine
Old Irish (Goídelc) méin, mían [mʲeːnʲ] = mineral, ore, metal
Middle Irish (Goídelc) méin, mían [mʲeːnʲ] = mineral, ore, metal
míanach = vein of ore, mine
míanaige = miner
Irish (Gaeilge) mianach = ore; stuff, material, substance, quality
mianadóir = miner
mianrach = mineral
mianreolaí = mineralogist
mianreolaíocht = mineralogy
mianadóireacht = mining; burrowing, excavating, digging deep
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) mèinn [mɛːn̪ʲ] = mine, ore
mèinnear, mèinneadair = miner
mèinnireach = mineral
mèinn-guail = coal mine, colliery
mèinn-talmhainn = landmine
mèinn salainn = salt mine
mèinneadh = mining
mèinnearach = mining
mèinn-eòlas = mineralogy
mèinneadh = mineralogical
mèinnearach = mineralogist
Manx (Gaelg) meain = ore, mine
meainagh = ore
meain-oayllys, meaineraght = metallurgy
meain-oaylee, meaineraght = mineralogist
meain arih = gold mine
meain argid = silver mine
meain chobbyr = copper mine
meain gheayil = coal mine, colliery
meain hollan = salt mine
meain leoaie = lead mine
Proto-Brythonic *muɨn = ore, metal, mine
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) mwyn, mŵn = mineral, ore, mine
Welsh (Cymraeg) mwyn = mineral, ore, mine
mwynwr = miner, sapper
mwyn arian = silver ore, silver mine
mwyn aur = gold ore, gold mine
mwyn cellt = quartz
mwyn coch = red lead, red ochre, haematite, other red ores
mwyn copr = copper ore, copper mine
mywn du = blacklead, graphite
mwyn efydd = copper ore, copper mine
mwyn haearn = iron ore
Cornish (Kernewek) moon = fusible metal mineral, mineral
Middle Breton *men = iron
Breton (Brezhoneg) mengleuz = quarry, slate quarry, mine
mengleuzer = slate quarry worker
mengleuzerezh = mining industry
mengleuziañ = to mine
mengleuziek = mining
mengleuzier = quarryman

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: probably from the Proto-Indo-European *mēy(H)nis, from *(s)mēy(H)- (to cut, hew) [source].

The English word mine (an excavation from which ore or solid minerals are taken) comes from the same Proto-Celtic root, via the Old French myne, mine, the Late Latin mina and Gaulish [source].

Middle Irish (Goídelc) mital(l) = metal
Irish (Gaeilge) miotal [ˈmʲɪt̪ˠəlˠ] = metal; mettle, spirit, hardihood
miotalach = metallic; mettlesome, spirited; hardy, wiry
miotalagrafaíocht = metallography
miotalóir = metallurgist
miotalóireach = metallurgic(al)
miotalóireacht = metal-work, metallurgy
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) miotal, meiteal = metal
= miner
meatailteach = metallic
obair-mheatailtean, obair-mheatailt = metalwork, metallurgy
meatailt uasal = precious metal
Manx (Gaelg) metal = metal
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) mettel = metal
Welsh (Cymraeg) metel, metal = metal, metal weapon or armour; substance, mettle, bravery, courage
metelaidd, metelig = metallic
meteleg = metallurgy
metelegol = metallurgical
metelegwr, metelegydd = metallurgist
Cornish (Kernewek) metol = metal
metolyek = metallic
Breton (Brezhoneg) metal = metal
metalerezh = metallurgy
metalour = metallurgist

Etymology (Welsh): from the Middle English metel(l), metal(l) (metal, ore), from the Old French metal (metal), from the Latin metallum (metal, precious metals, mine), from the Ancient Greek μέταλλον (métallon – metal, precious metals, mine) [source].

Etymology (Irish): from the Old French metal (metal), then as above [source].

The English word metal comes from the same roots, via Middle English, Old French, etc [source]. The word mettle (a quality of endurance and courage) was originally a variant of metal, and later came to have a figurative sense [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Iron

Today we’re looking at the words for iron and related things in Celtic languages.

iron fence

Proto-Celtic *īsarnom = iron
Old Irish (Goídelc) íarn [iːa̯rn] = iron
Irish (Gaeilge) iarann [ˈiəɾˠən̪ˠ] = iron (element, appliance, golf club); iron part of a tool; brass (money)
amhiarann, iarnmhian = iron ore
iarann rocach = corrugated iron
iaranach = irons, iron implements, fetters, ploughshare
iaranaigh = to put in irons, fit, cover with iron
iaranaí = (made of) iron, iron-hard
iaranáil = to iron (clothes)
iarnmhangaire = ironmonger
iarannaois = the Iron Age
iarna = hardware
iarnród = railway
iarnúil = iron-like, ferrous
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) iarann [iər̪ˠən̪ˠ] = iron, (metal) blade; day’s worth cutting peat (for two)
iarnaidh = ferrous, iron-hard, iron-coloured, stingy
iarnaigeadh, iarnachadh = (act of) ironing
iarnair = ironmonger
iarainn-tàthainn, iarann-sobhdraidh = soldering iron
iarann-dreasaigidh = clothes iron
iarann mòlltaichte = cast iron
iarann preasach = corrugated iron
rathad-iarainn = railway
Manx (Gaelg) yiarn = iron; tool, scythe, blade; dough (money); tip (gratuity)
yiarnagh = ferric
yiarnal = iron, ironing
yiarneyder = ironmonger
yiarnrey = hardware
yiarnaghey, yiarney = to cover with iron, to iron
yiarnoil = ferrous
Proto-Brythonic *hijarn = hard, hard metal, iron
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) heirn, hyarn, heyrn, hayarnn, haearn = iron
Welsh (Cymraeg) haearn = iron, iron bar, hardness, strength, resoluteness, hard, strong, unyielding; sword, spear, lance; iron armour, coat of mail; fetters, shackles; branding-iron, pincers; flat-iron; spur
haearnaidd = like iron, ferrous; strong, hard, callous, oppressive
haearneiddio = to harden, make (one) unfeeling or callous
haearnol = of iron, iron-like, hard, unfeeling, rigid, stern
haearnwr = ironmonger, ironworker
haearn bwrw = cast iron
haearn gwaith = wrought iron
haearn gwrymiog = corrugated iron
Middle Cornish heorn, horn, hôrn = iron
Cornish (Kernewek) horn = iron
hornek = ferric, iron
hornell = iron (for clothes)
hornella = to iron
horner = ironmonger
horn margh = horseshoe
hyns horn = railway
Old Breton hoiarn = iron
Middle Breton houarnn = iron
Breton (Brezhoneg) houarn [ˈhuː.arn] = iron; flat iron; horseshoe
houarnek = ferric
houarnus = ferrous
houarnaj = scrap iron
houarnajer = scrap merchant
houarnañ = to shoe (a horse)
houarn-marc’h = horseshoe
houarn da zistennañ = iron (for clothes)
hent-houarn = railway

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: probably from the Proto-Indo-European *h₁ēsh₂r̥no- (bloody, red), from *h₁ésh₂r̥ (blood) [source].

Words for iron in Germanic languages come from the same Proto-Celtic root, via the Proto-Germanic *īsarną (iron), including iron in English, ijzer in Dutch, Eisen in German, and järn in Swedish [source].

Words for blood in Romance languages come from the same PIE root, via the Latin sanguīs (blood, descent, progeny, family), including sang in Catalan and French, sangue in Italian and Portuguese, and sangre in Spanish, and also the English word sanguine (blood red; warm, optimistic, confident) [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Doors

Today we’re looking at the words for door and related things in Celtic languages.

Priory Church of St Mary in Chepstow, Wales

Proto-Celtic *dwār = door
Gaulish *durom = door – was borrowed into Latin and appeared in placenames such as Augustodurum (now Bayeux), and Nemetodurum (now Nanterre)
Proto-Brythonic *dor = door
Old Welsh dor = door
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dor = door
Welsh (Cymraeg) dôr [druːs] = door; defence, refuge, shield; opportunity; protector, defender, chief, leader
dôr blyg(edig) = folding door
dôr ddyrchafad = portcullis
Middle Breton dor = door
Breton (Brezhoneg) dor = door
dor a-dreñv = rear door
dor a-raok = front door
dor emgefre = automatic door
dor greñvaet = fortified gate
dor harz tan = fire door
dor-borzh = gate (of a courtyard)
dor brenestr = French window
dor dal = front door, portal
gwir treuz-dor = doorstep

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *dʰwṓr (door), from *dʰwer- (doorway, door, gate) [source].

Words from the sane Proto-Indo-European root include: door and forum in English, deur (door) in Dutch, Tür (door, doorway) in German, dehors (outside) in French, fuori (outside) in Italian, and fuera (outside) in Spanish [source].

Proto-Celtic *dworestus = door
Old Irish (Goídelc) dorus [ˈdorus] = door
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) dorus [ˈdorus] = door
Irish (Gaeilge) doras [ˈd̪ˠɔɾˠəsˠ] = door, doorway
doras isteach = entrance
doras amach = exit
doras tosaigh / béil = front door
doras cúil / thiar = backdoor
doirseach = having doors, open, accessible, gaping (wound)
doirseoir = door-keeper, (hall) porter
doirseoireacht = occupation of door-keeper
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dorus [dɔrəs] = door, valve
dorus-beag = back door, inner door
dorus-mór = front door, main entrance
doras a-mach = exit
àrd-doras = lintel
ath-dhoras = next door
deoch an dorais = stirrup cup, one for the door/road, Jock and Doris
Manx (Gaelg) dorrys = door, doorway, gate, portal; back (of cart), fly (of tent)
dorrys doont = back door
dorrys toshee = front door
dorrys egin = emergency exit, exit
jough yn dorrys = parting drink, stirrup cup
sole y dorrys = doorstep, threshold
Proto-Brythonic *drus = doorway, entrance, door
Old Welsh drus = doorway, entrance, door
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) drus, drvs, drws = doorway, entrance, door
Welsh (Cymraeg) drws [druːs] = doorway, entrance, door, pass, estuary, opening, opportunity, facility
drws codi/cudd = trap-door
drws nesaf = next door (to), very near (to), bordering (on)
wrth y drws = at hand, close, near
o ddrws = from before
drysaf, drwsaf, dryo, drwso = to mind a door (in a coal-mine)
dryswr, drwswr = door-boy (in a coal-mine)
drysor = doorkeepr, janitor, porter
Middle Cornish daras, darat = door
darador = doorkeeper
Cornish (Kernewek) daras = door
darasik = wicket
penn/pedn daras = lintel

Etymology from the Proto-Celtic *dwār (door) – see above [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Mind Sense

Today we’re looking at the words for mind, sense and related things in Celtic languages.

Mind, Sense, Widom, Intelligence, Meaning

Proto-Celtic *kʷēslā = mind; sense, wisdom, intelligence; meaning
Old Irish (Goídelc) cíall [kʲiːa̯l͈] = sense, intelligence, mind; wisdom, good sense, skill; intention, cause, reason, idea; signification, meaning, function
Irish (Gaeilge) ciall [kiəl̪ˠ/kʲal̪ˠ] = sense, sanity; normal state of mind; common sense; perception; meaning; reason, cause
ciallaigh = to mean, signify; explain, interpret
ciallchogar = confidential whisper
ciallmhaireacht = sensibleness, reasonableness
ciallmhar = sensible, reasonable, common sense
aingiall = unreason
fochiall = secondary meaning, connotation
gan chiall = meaningless, misguided, unmeaning, callow, lunatic, senseless, silly
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ciall [kʲiəl̪ˠ] = meaning, sense, significance, connotation, implication, understanding, reason
ciallach = prudent, sensible, sane, tame
ciallaich = to mean, signify, imply
gun chiall = without sense, senseless, insane
eu-céillidheachd = insanity, madness, irrationality, foolishness
Manx (Gaelg) keeall = sense, significance
keeaylagh = eloquent, prudent
meecheeall = senselessness
meecheeallagh = senseless, unadvisedly
bun-cheeal = moral
gyn keeall = unmeaning, senseless
Proto-Brythonic *puɨll = mind; sense, wisdom, intelligence; meaning
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) puil, puilh = deliberation, consideration, care, caution
Welsh (Cymraeg) pwyll [puːɨ̯ɬ / pʊi̯ɬ] = deliberation, consideration, care, caution; discretion, prudence, wisdom, patience, understanding, intelligence, perception, judgement; nature, disposition; meaning, significance, sense
pwyll(i)ad = intention, intent, goal, aim, design
pwyllaf, pwyllo = to exercise discretion, deliberate, consider, contemplate
pwyllgor = committee, meeting
pwyllog = discreet, wise, intelligent, sane, rational, reasonable
pwyllwr, pwyllwraig = discreet, sensible or wise person
gan bwyll = gently, gradually, carefully, slowly
iawnbwyll = sanity, saneness, sane, sensible
o’i bwyll = out of one’s mind, beside oneself, insane
Cornish (Kernewek) poll = intelligence, reason
pollek = brainy, intelligent
Breton (Brezhoneg) poell = logical, logic
poellata = to reason, argue
poellakaat = to rationalize
poellel = logical, logic
poellelour = rationalist
poellgor = committee

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *kʷeyt- (to notice) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include číst (to read) and čítat (to count) in Czech, šķist (to seem, appear) and skaitīt (to count) in Latvian, skaitýti (to read) in Lithuanian, and चित्त [t͡ʃɪt̪t̪] (mind, heart) in Hindi [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Bolts and Locks

Today we’re looking at the words for locks, bolts and related things in Celtic languages.

shed door bolt lock

Proto-Celtic *klāwos = bolt
Old Irish (Goídelc) cló, cloë = nail, spike
Irish (Gaeilge) cló [klˠoː] = form, shape, appearance; impression, mould; print, type; nail, spike
clóbhuail = print
clóchur = (type) setting
clóchuradóir = type-setter
clódóir = printer, dyer
clódóireacht = printing; dyeing, colouring; misrepresentation
clóghrafaíocht = typography
clóphreas = printing press
clóscríobh = typing, typewriting; to type
cló-eagar = composition
cló-eagraí = compositor
cló-eagraigh = to compose
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) clò [kl̪ˠɔː] = cloth, woven material, tweed; print; imprint; spike, nail; peg, pin
clò-bhualadh = printing, publication, printout
clò-bhualadair = printer (machine & printing house)
clò-ghrafachd = typography
clò-sgrìobhadair = typist, typewriter
clò-shuidheachadh = typesetting
Clò na Hearadh = Harris Tweed
cruth-clò = font
Manx (Gaelg) clou = edition, print, printed matter, printing press, publication, type
clouder = printer
clougraafeeaght = typography
clouscreeudeyr = typist
clou doo, clou trome = bold type
clou Gaelgagh = Gaelic type
clou gorrym = blueprint
soiaghey clou = type-setting
soieder clou = type-setter
Proto-Brythonic *klọw = bolt
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) clo, klo = lock, bolt
Welsh (Cymraeg) clo [kloː] = lock, bolt; impediment, difficulty; brake; cluster, bunch; conclusion
ar glo = locked
clo clap, clo clec, clo clwt = padlock
clo rheswm = conclusion
cyfnod clo = lockdown
tan glo (ac allwydd) = locked (up), under lock and key
cload = locking, end, conclusion, closure
cloadwy = lockable, locked, final
cloëdig, cloiedig = locked, secure, closed, concealed, bound, confined
cloi = to lock, shut, bind, clinch, conclude
Old Breton clou = bolt
Middle Breton clao = bolt
Breton (Brezhoneg) klaou = gear, key, mesh

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *kleh₂w-os (bolt, bar, hook), from *(s)kleh₂w- (hook, crook, peg) [source].

Words from the same PIE root, via the Latin clāvis (key), include: chiave (key, spanner) in Italian, clé (key, wrench, spanner) and clef (clef (in music)) in French, clef, clavicle and clavichord in English, and llave (key, spanner, wrench, tap, spigot, switch) in Spanish [source].

I can’t find a cognate word in Cornish. A lock is a strother, and a bolt is a ebil. The origins of these words are not known.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Brothers

Today we’re looking at the words for brother and related people in Celtic languages.

Brothers

Proto-Celtic *brātīr [ˈbraː.tiːr] = brother
Gaulish *bratir = brother
Old Irish (Goídelc) bráthair [ˈbraːθirʲ] = brother, cousin, kinsman
bráthardacht = brotherly
bráthardae = brotherly, fraternal
derbráthair = brother (by blood), from derb (certain) & bráthair
sinserbráthair = elder brother, senior kinsman
Irish (Gaeilge) bráthair [ˈɑhəɾʲ/ˈahæɾʲ] = brother (member of a religious community), friar, kinsman; monkfish, angelfish
bráithriúil = brotherly
bráithriúlacht = brotherliness
deartháir = brother, male sibling
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bràthair [ahɪrʲ] = brother, male sibling
bràithreil = brotherly
bràthair-altraim = foster brother
bràthair-athar = parternal uncle
bràthair-màthar = maternal uncle
bràthair-cèile = brother-in-law
comh-bhràthaireil = fraternal
leth-bhràthair = half-brother
Manx (Gaelg) braar = brother, monk, friar
braar ayrey = parternal uncle
braar mayrey = maternal uncle
braar keeilley, braar ‘sy leigh = brother-in-law
braar lannoonagh = twin brother
braaragh, braaroil = brotherly, fraternal
braarys = brotherhood
jarroo-vraar = blood brother
lhiass-vraar = stepbrother
lieh-vraar = half brother
Proto-Brythonic *brọdr = brother
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) brawt, braud, bravt = brother
Welsh (Cymraeg) brawd [brau̯d] = brother, half-brother, male relative; clansman, fellow-countryman, male friend, fellow-man, like-minded person; monk; friar
brawd crefydd = friar, brother of a religious order
brawdoliaeth = brotherhood, brotherliness, brotherly feeling, brotherly love, fraternity, fellowship, relationship
brawdoli = to fraternize
brawdoldeb = brotherliness, brotherhood, brotherly love
brodorol = brotherly, fraternal; native, indigenous, vernacular
brawdyn = (little) brother, poor brother, wretch, male friend
Cornish (Kernwek) broder [taːz/tæːz] = brother
hanter-broder = half-brother
broder da = brother-in-law
brederedh = brotherhood
Old Breton brotr = brother
Middle Breton breuzr = brother
Breton (Brezhoneg) breur [ˈbrøːr] = brother
breur gevell = twin brother
breur-kaer, breureg = brother-in-law
breur-laezh, breur-mager = foster brother
breurel = fraternal
breuriezh = frairie
breuriad = siblings
hantervreur = half-brother

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰréh₂tēr (brother) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Mothers

Today we’re looking at the words for mother and related people in Celtic languages.

Mother Goose

Proto-Celtic *mātīr [ˈmaː.tiːr] = mother
*mātrikʷā, *mātrokʷī = maternal aunt, mother-like
Gaulish mātīr [ˈmaːtiːr] = mother
Celtiberian matrubos = mothers
Old Irish (Goídelc) máthir [ˈmaːθirʲ] = mother
máthrathatu = motherhood
máthramail = resembling one’s mother
Irish (Gaeilge) máthair [ˈmˠɑːhəɾʲ/ˈmˠɑːɾʲ/ˈmˠahærʲ] = mother, source (of a river)
máthairab = abbess
máthairthír = mother country
máthreachas = maternity, motherhood
máthrigh = to mother, bear, foster
máthriúil = motherly, tender, kind, mother-like
máthriúlacht = motherliness
leasmháthair = stepmother
seanmháthair = grandmother
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) màthair [maːhɪrʲ] = mother, origin, source
màthair-uisge = water source (of a river, etc)
màthair-chéile = mother-in-law
màthaireachd [maːhɪrʲəxg] = maternity, motherhood
màthaireil = mother-like, motherly, maternal
màthair athar = paternal grandmother
màthair màthar = maternal grandmother
màthair-sinnsireach = matrilinear
leas-mhàthair = stepmother
Manx (Gaelg) moir = mother, matron, mater, queen, dam; focus, fountainhead, generator
moiragh, moiroil = motherly
moiraght = motherhood
moiraghys, moirys = maternity, motherhood
moir-reilleyder/strong> = matriach
lhiass voir = stepmother
shenn voir = grandmother
Proto-Brythonic *mọdreb = aunt
Old Welsh modreped = aunts
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) modryb = aunt
Welsh (Cymraeg) modryb = aunt, uncle’s wife, matron
modrybaidd = aunt-like, matronly, motherly, respected
modrydaf = queen bee, parent bee-colony, (old) beehive
Old Cornish modereb = aunt
Cornish (Kernewek) modrep = aunt
modrebik = aunty
Old Breton motrep = aunt
Middle Breton mozreb = aunt
Breton (Brezhoneg) moereb [ˈmweːrep] = aunt
moereb-kozh = great aunt

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *méh₂tēr. (mother) [source].

Proto-Celtic *mamm(y)ā = mother, nanny, mum
Old Irish (Goídelc) muimme [ˈmaːθirʲ] = wet nurse, foster mother, instructress, patroness
Irish (Gaeilge) buime = foster-mother, nurse
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) muime [muimə] = stepmother, (wet) nurse, godmother
muime-chìche = wet nurse
muime-shìthe = fairy godmother
Manx (Gaelg) mimmey = foster mother, god mother, godparent, guardian, sponsor
Proto-Brythonic *mamm = mother
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) mam = mother
Welsh (Cymraeg) mam [mam] = mother, ancestress, dam, queen bee; source, origin, cause, root; womb, matrix, uterus, hysteria, pregnancy
mamaeth = (wet) nurse, foster-mother, mother
mamaetha = to nurse (a child), suckle, foster, nourish, cherish
mamedd = motherhood
mamiaith = mother tongue, vernacular
mamwlad = mother country, motherland, native land
Old Cornish mam = mother
Middle Cornish mam = mother
Cornish (Kernewek) mamm [mæm], mabm = mother
mammeth = foster-mother, wet nurse
mammik = mum
mammrewl, mammrowl = matriarchy
mamm-wynn = grandmother
mamm vesydh = godmother
Middle Breton mamm = mother
Breton (Brezhoneg) mamm [ˈmãmː] = mother, female (animal), womb
mammanv = matron, matriarch
mammelezh = motherhood, maternity
mammvro = motherland, homeland
mamm-gozh = grandmother

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *mammā (mummy, mum) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Dough

Today we’re looking at the words for dough and related things in Celtic languages.

Rested Pasta Dough 2

Proto-Celtic *taistos, *taysto- = dough
Old Irish (Goídelc) taís, taés [ˈtai̯s] = dough
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) tóes, táes = dough
Irish (Gaeilge) taos [t̪ˠeːsˠ/t̪ˠiːsˠ/t̪ˠiːsˠ] = dough, paste
taosach = doughy, pasty
taosaigh = to paste
taosrán = pastry
taoschnó = doughnut
taos fiacla = toothpaste
taos géar = sourdough
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) taois [tɯːʃ] = dough, paste
taoiseach = doughy, pasty
taoiseag = doughnut
taois-uighe = (egg) batter
taois-chailce = putty
taois gheur = sourdough
Manx (Gaelg) teayst = dough, pastry, paste
teaystag = dumpling
teaystagh = doughy, ill-baked, pasty, under-cooked
teaystyn, teaystnee = to knead
Proto-Brythonic *toɨs = dough
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) toes = (lump of) dough or pastry
Welsh (Cymraeg) toes [toːɨ̯s/tɔi̯s] = (lump of) dough or pastry, paste, sticky mass
toesaidd = doughy, doughlike
toesen = lump of dough, doughnut
toesi = to make into dough, become a dough, knead, soften
toeslud = putty
toeslyd = doughy, doughlike, badly baked, soft, pasty, sticky, clammy, stodgy, heavy
surdoes = leaven, sourdough, ferment
Cornish (Kernewek) toos = dough
know toos = doughnuts
toos alamandys = marzipan
toos gwari = playdough
Middle Breton toas = dough, batter
Breton (Brezhoneg) toaz = dough, batter
toazadur = thickening, pastiness
toazenn = noodle
toazenner = pasta machine
toazennoù = pasta
toazennek = pasted, thickened

Etymology possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *teh₂ys-t- (dough), from *teh₂- (to knead, melt, flow) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include desem (sourdough, leaven, yeast) in Dutch, těsto (dough) in Czech, ciasto (dough, batter, cake, pie) in Polish, тесто [ˈtʲestə] (dough, paste, batter) in Russian, and тісто [ˈtʲistɔ] (dough) in Ukrainian [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Knotty Bulges

Today we’re looking at the words for knots, bulges, and related things in Celtic languages.

Knot - words for knot in Celtic languages

Proto-Celtic *odbos = knot, bulge
Old Irish (Goídelc) odb [oðb] = knot (in a wood); lump, swelling, protuberance; difficulty, problem
odbach
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fodb, fobd = knot (in a wood); lump, swelling, protuberance; difficulty, problem
Irish (Gaeilge) fadhb [fˠəibˠ] = knot (in a wood); callosity; lump (from blow); lumpy object; knotty problem, poser
fadhbach = knotty, callous, lumpy; problematical, puzzling
fadhbairne = lumpy object
fadhbán = (small) knot, lump
fadhbóg = (small) lump, whopping lie
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) faob [fɯːb] = lump, knob, knot (in wood)
faobach [fɯːbəx] = lumpy, knotty
Manx (Gaelg) uddan = lump, node, knob
Welsh (Cymraeg) oddf [ˈɔðv] = hard swelling or growth, hump, knob (on horn), gall, burl, knot (in wood), tuber, bulb, knob, lump, node
oddfog = knobby, bulbous, tuberous, having a hump
oddfynnog = bulbous, tubercular, tuberous

Etymology possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *h₃ésth₁ / *h₂óst (bone) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) colmméne = skin
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) colum = skin
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kulym, clwm, cwlm, kwlwm = knot, tie, bond
kylymy, klymv, clymmu, c(y)lymaf, c(y)lymu = to tie, bind
Welsh (Cymraeg cwlwm [ˈkʊlʊm / ˈkuːlʊm] = knot, tie; bond, connection, union, fetter, plot; bunch, cluster, bundle; node, nodule, knot in timber
cwlwm gwlwm = knot tied twice
clymu [ˈkləmɨ̞ / ˈkləmi] = to tie, bind, set, unite, couple, rally
clymog = knotted, knotty, gnarled, tied, intricate, complex
Middle Cornish colm = knot, tie, bond
colma = to bind, tie
colmen = knot, tie, bond, halter
colmur = binder
Cornish (Kernewek) kolm = knot
kelmi = to knot
kelmys = knotted
Middle Breton scoulm, sclom, sklom = knot
Breton (Brezhoneg) skoulmoù, skoulm = knot
kouloumañ, kolomiñ = to knot

Etymology uncertain

Proto-Celtic *nad-sko- = to bind
Old Irish (Goídelc) snaidm [sn͈aðʲmʲ] = bond, contract, knot, pact
snaidmid = to bind, knot
nasicid = to bind
airnaidmid = to bind, pledge
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) snaidm = knot, bond
Irish (Gaeilge) snaidm = knot, bond, constriction, contortion, tie, brace, problem, difficulty, problem; to knot, bind, tie, entwine, join, unite, knit
snaidmeach = knotted, knotty
snaidmeacht = knottiness
snaidmeadóir = knotter, binder, tier, setter
snaidmeach = knotty, knotted
nasc = to tie, tether, chain, link, clasp, bond
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) snaidhm [sn̪ˠaim] = knot, joint, knotting, tying a knot
snaidhmeach [sn̪ˠaiməx] = knotty, abounding in knots
snaidhmte [sn̪ˠaimdʲə] = knotted, tied with a knot
nasg [n̪ˠasg] = tie-band, membrane of an egg, skeleton
nasgadh
Manx (Gaelg) sniem = bow, knot, snare; to knot
sniemmit = joined, knitted, knotted, noosed, tied
sniemmagh = knotted
sniemmey = join, knit, knot, knotting, noose, tie, tying
nast = award, bond, gift, gratuity, betroth
naisht = affianced, bind, engaged
Middle Breton nasca = to bind
Breton (Brezhoneg) naskañ = to hinder, impede, obstruct

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *gned-/*gnod- (to bind) [source]. The English word knot comes from the same PIE root, via Middle English, Old English and Proto-Germanic [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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