Muddy Mires

Words for mud and related things in Celtic languages.

HFF 44

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *latyos = moist
Old Irish (Goídelc) lathach [dʲerɡ] = mud, mire
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) lathach, laithech, lathaig = mire, puddle, quagmire, morass
Irish (Gaeilge) lathach [ˈl̪ˠɑhəx / l̪ˠaiç] = mud, slush, slime
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) lathach [l̪ˠa.əx] = mire, ooze, sludge, quicksand
lathach-mhòine = peat-bog
lathach sàile = saltmarsh
lathachach [l̪ˠa.əxəx] = muddy, oozy, sludgy
lathachail [l̪ˠa.əxal] = muddy, oozy, sludgy
lathadh = besemearing, (be)numbing, heat (in cats)
Manx (Gaelg) laagh = mire, mud
laagh vog = sludge
laaghagh = muddy, sludgy, slushy
laaghan = muddy place, slough
Proto-Brythonic *llėd = mud
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llaid = mud, mire, dirt, clay, slime, ooze
lleidyawc = muddy, clayey, miry, oozy, slimy
Welsh (Cymraeg) llaid [ɬai̯d] = mud, mire, dirt, clay, slime, ooze, quagmire, quicksand, dregs
lleidfa = muddy or clayey place
lleidfysgaf, lleidfysgu = to, knead, work clay, bespatter with mud or dirt, bedraggle, bemire
lleidiaf, lleidio = to turn into mud or clay, become sodden
lleidiog = muddy, clayey, miry, oozy, slimy
lleidiogaf, lleidiogi = to become muddy or miry
lleidiogrwydd = muddiness, ooziness, turbidity
lleidiol = full of mud, muddy, miry, clayey
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) lued, luth, lyys, lys, lŷs = mud, mire, dirt, filth
luedic = miry, filthy, stinking
lyys haal = salt-marsh
Cornish (Kernewek) leys [lɛɪz] = mud, slime
leysek = mire
Middle Breton (Brezonec) lec’hid = slime, silt
Breton (Brezhoneg) lec’hid = slime, silt
lec’hidadur = siltation
lec’hidan, lec’hidañ = to silt up, become gelatinous, viscous
lec’hideg = mudflat
lec’hidus = muddy

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *lat- (damp, wet). Words from the same roots include latex in English, latãkas (chute, gutter, duct) in Lithuanian, and lag (to wet, moisten) in Albanian [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) láp = mud, mire, sin, vice
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) láip [l͈aːb] = mud, mire, sin, vice
Irish (Gaeilge) láib [l̪ˠɑːbʲ/l̪ˠæːbʲ] = mud, mire; to muddy, spatter
caoch láibe = mole
oitir láibe = mud-bank
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) làb [l̪ˠaːb] = mire, mud, muddy puddle, day’s labour
làbach [l̪ˠaːbəx] = marsh, swamp
làbachas [l̪ˠaːbəxəs] = swampiness, bogginess
làban [l̪ˠaːban] = mire, mud, muddy place, dirty work, drudgery, wet and muddy person
làbanachadh [l̪ˠaːbanəxəɣ] = smearing, daubing, dirtying, wallowing, bedraggling, drenching
làbrach [l̪ˠaːbarəx] = miry, muddy, dirty, dirty/unkempt person
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) loob = slime, sludge
Cornish (Kernewek) loub = slime, sludge
louba = to lubricate

Etymology: probably related to lathach [source].

Proto-Celtic *kʷrīyess = clay
Old Irish (Goídelc) cré [kʲrʲeː] = clay, earth
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cré, cre = clay, earth
créda, criadta, criata, creodae = clayey, earthen, fictile (pliable, moldable)
Irish (Gaeilge) cré = clay, earth, dust
créachadh = (act of) earthing, moulding
créafóg = clay, earth
crécholúr = clay pigeon
cré-earra = earthenware
créúil = clayey, earthy
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) criadh [krʲiəɣ] = clay
criadgadair [krʲia.ədɪrʲ] = potter
criadhadaireachd [krʲia.ədɪrʲəxg] = pottery
Manx (Gaelg) cray = ash, clay, pipe clay
crayee = ceramic, earthen
crayoil = clayey, earthy
Proto-Brythonic *prið [ˈpriːð] = clay, mud, earth
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) prid, pridd = soil, earth, dust, ground, clay, mortar, plaster
priddo = to cover with earth, bury
pridell, priddell = clod, sod, dust, soil
priddled, priddlyd = earthy, earthen, dirty, dusty,
Welsh (Cymraeg) pridd [priːð] = soil, earth, dust, ground, clay, mortar, plaster
priddach = soil, earth, clay, earthenware
pridd(i)af, pridd(i)o = to cover with earth, bury, plaster, daub
priddawr = potter
pridd-dom = dirt, mud, clay
priddell = clod, sod, dust, soil, grave, potsherd, brick, tile
priddfaen = brick, (earthenware) tile for making bricks
priddl(l)yd = earthy, earthen, dirty, dusty, uncouth
priddwr = mason, plasterer, burier
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) pri, pry, prî = mould, earth, clay
prian, prían = clayey ground
Cornish (Kernewek) pri = clay, mud
priek = clayey
prien = clay ground
priweyth = pottery
priweythor, priweythores = potter
priweythva = clay-works, pottery
Old Breton (Brethonoc) pri = clay, mudt
Middle Breton (Brezonec) pry = clay, mud
Breton (Brezhoneg) pri [priː] = clay, mud, mortar
priaj = ceramic
prian, priañ = to coat with clay
priasell = waste, quagmire
priasellek = full of clay mud
prieg = clayey, muddy

Etymology possibly from Proto-Indo-European *krey- (to siftm separate, divide). Words from the same roots include latex in English, latãkas (chute, gutter, duct) in Lithuanian, and lag (to wet, moisten) in Albanian [source].

Middle Breton (Brezonec) fanc, fancq, fang, fank = mud, excrement
Breton (Brezhoneg) fank [ˈfãŋk] = mud, excrement
fankan, fankañ = to poop
fankeg = muddy

Etymology from Norman fanque (mud) [source] from Old French fange (mud, addle, mire), from Vulgar Latin *fanga/*fangus (mud), possibly from Frankish, from Proto-Germanic *fanją (swamp, fen). The French words fange (filth, mire, debauchery) and fagne (marshland, fen), and the Catalan word fang (mud) come from the same roots [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llaka, lacca, llacca = mud, sludge, mire, dirt, muck, puddle, filth, slome
Welsh (Cymraeg) llaca [ɬaka] = mud, sludge, mire, dirt, muck, puddle, filth, slime
llaceilyd = muddy, miry, dirty

Etymology from Middle English lake/laca (lake, stream; ditch, drain, sewer), from Old French lac (lake) or Latin lacus (lake, basin, tank), to-Italic *lakus (lake), from Proto-Indo-European *lókus (pond, pool) [source].

Proto-Celtic *lutā = dirt, mud
Gaulish *lutos = swamp
Celtiberian *lutā = swamp
Old Irish (Goídelc) loth [ˈloθ] = mire, mud, swamp, marsh
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) loth, lath = mud, mire, quagmire, marsh
Irish (Gaeilge) lodair = to cover with mud, muddy, to wallow in mire, grovel
lodán = stagnant pool, puddle
lodar = miry place, slough, soft, flabby person
lodartha = muddy, slushy, slobby, soft, flabby, grovelling, abject, base, vulgar
lodarthacht = muddiness, slushiness, softness, flabbiness, abjectness, baseness, vulgarity
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) lod [l̪ˠɔd] = pool, pond, marsh
lodagan = small pool of water
lodan = puddle, small pool, small marsh

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *lew- (dirt, mud) [source].

Lutetia, the Gallo-Roman town founded in 52 BC that became Paris, gets it’s name from the Gaulish word *lutos (swamp) [source]. It was known as Lutetia Parisiorum by the Romans.

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Through and Through

Here are some words for through, across, over and related things in Celtic languages.

Sabhal Mòr Ostaig

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *trē = through
Old Irish (Goídelc) tre [tʲrʲe] = through
trium = through me
triut = through you (sg)
triit = through him
tree = through her
triunn = through us
triib = through you (pl)
treu, tréu = through them
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) tri, tre, tré, trí [tʲrʲe] = through, along, across, by means of
tríom(sa) = through me
triut, tréot = through you (sg)
tríd(sean) = through him
trethe, trithe = through her
trínn(e) = through us
tríbh(se) = through you (pl)
tríothu(san) = through them
Irish (Gaeilge) trí [tʲɾʲiː] = through, within, throughout, on account of, by mean of
tríom(sa) = through me
tríot(sa) = through you (sg)
tríd(sean) = through him
trínn(e) = through her
tríthi(se) = through us
tríbh(se) = through you (pl)
tríothu(san) = through them
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tre [edər] = through
tríom(sa) = through me
tríot(sa) = through you (sg)
tríd(sean) = through him
trínn(e) = through her
tríthi(se) = through us
tríbh(se) = through you (pl)
tríothu(san) = through them
Manx (Gaelg) trooid = through, betwixt
my hrooid = through me
dty hrooid = through you (sg)
e hrooid = through him
e trooid = through her
nyn drooid = through us / you (pl) / them
Proto-Brythonic *truɨ = through
Old Welsh troi = through
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) trui, trwy, drỽy = through
trwof, drwof = through me
trwot, drwot = through you (sg)
trwyddo, drwyddo = through him
trwyddi, drwyddi = through her
trwom, drwom = through us
trwoch, drwoch = through you (pl)
trwyddynt, drwyddynt = through them
Welsh (Cymraeg) trwy, drwy [truːɨ̯/trʊi̯] = through(out), from end to end, over, across, along, while, by (means of), according to, because of
trwyddo (f)i = through me
trwyddot ti = through you (sg)
trwyddo fe/fo = through him
trwyddi hi = through her
trwyddon ni = through us
trwyddoch chi = through you (pl)
trwyddyn nhw = through them
trwyenaf, trawenu = to go (over, through), cross, bring through
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) tre = through
Cornish (Kernewek) dre = through via, by means of , per
dredhov = through me
drehos = through you (sg)
dredho = through him
dredhi = through her
dredhon = through us
dredhowgh = through you (pl)
dredha = through them
dre bub rann/radn = throughout
dre happ = by chance, by the way, incidentally
dre wall = accidentally, by accident
drefen = because of, on account of
Old Breton (Brethonoc) dre = through
Middle Breton (Brezonec) dre, der, tre = through
dreizoff = through me
drezoude = through you (sg)
dreizaff = through him
drezi, dredi = through her
dré-omb = through us
dreizoch = through you (pl)
drezo, drede, dreze = through them
Breton (Brezhoneg) dre [dreː] = through, by, with
drezon = through me
drezout = through you (sg)
drezañ = through him
drezi = through her
drezomp = through us
drezoc’h = through you (pl)
drezo, dreze = through them
dre gant = percent
dre guzh = in secret
dre zegouezh = by chance, by accident

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *terh₂-/*ter- (to cross over, pass through, overcome) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include thorough and through in English [source].

Proto-Celtic *taras = through, across
Old Irish (Goídelc) tar = across, over, through
thorum(sa) = over me
torut(su) = over you (sg)
tarais = over him
tairse = over her
torunn(i) = over us
toraib = over you (pl)
tairsiu = over them
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) tar = over, across, covering
torum, torom, toram = over me
torut, torot, thorad = over you (sg)
tarais, taris, tairis = over him
tarsi, tairs = over her
torunn, torund = over us
toraib thoruibh = over you (pl)
tairis, tairise = over them
Irish (Gaeilge) thar [haɾˠ/hæɾʲ] = over, above, across, by, past, through, beyond, more than
tharam(sa) = over/beyond me
tharat(sa) = over/beyond you (sg)
thairis(-sean) = over/beyond him
thairsti(se) = over/beyond her
tharainn(e) = over/beyond us
tharaibh(se) = over/beyond you (pl)
tharstu(san) = over/beyond them
thar bord = overboard
thar sáile = overseas
thar téarma = overdue
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) thar [har] = across, over
tharam(sa) = over me
tharad(sa) = over you (sg)
thairis(-san) = over him
thairte(se) = over her
tharainn(e) = over us
tharaibh(se) = over you (pl)
tharta(san) = over them
thar bòrd/stoc = overboard
thar chnoc is sloc fuar fad ás = over the hills and far away
thar chuain = overseas, across the sea
thar tomhais = beyond measure
Manx (Gaelg) har [har] = across, beyond, former
harrish = above, across, beyond, bygone, over, trans
harrym(s) = over me
haryd(s) = over you (sg)
harrish(yn) = over him
harree(ish) = over her
harrin(yn) = over us
harriu(ish) = over you (pl)
harroo(syn) = over them
har cheer = overland
har mooir = oveasea
harrish as tarrish = over and over
harrish boayrd = overboard
harrish shen = furthermore, moreover
harrish yn traa = overdue
Proto-Brythonic *tra(ns) = very, extremely, exceedingly, beyond
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tra = very, extremely, exceedingly, beyond
Welsh (Cymraeg) tra = very, extremely, exceedingly, beyond, the other side of, over, across, more than, above
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) tra, tre = beyond, over
Cornish (Kernewek) dres = beyond, during, in the course of, over, past, through
dres an gwartha = over the top
dres mor = overseas
dres nos = overnight
Old Breton (Brethonoc) tra = through, across, by means of
Middle Breton (Brezonec) tra = through, across, by means of
Breton (Brezhoneg) tra [tʁa] = while
tramor [traˈmoːr] = overseas

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *térh₂-t (to get through, cross over) [source]. Words from the same PIE roots include trans- in English, très (very) in French, tras (behind, after) in Galician, and tras (afterm behind, beyond) in Spanish [source].

Proto-Celtic *trāns(s) = across
Old Irish (Goídelc) trá [traː] = then, therefore
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) trá, tra, thra = then, therefore, so, however, but, on the other hand
Irish (Gaeilge) trá = then, indeed, however
Proto-Brythonic *trọs = strong, powerful, potent, mighty (?)
Old Welsh traus = strong, powerful, potent, mighty
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) traỽs, traus, traws = strong, powerful, potent, mighty
artraus, ar traỽs. ar y draỽs, ar traws = across, over, upon, about
trowsi = to move/cut across, cross
trawsedd = perverseness, obstinacy, rebellion
Welsh (Cymraeg) traws = strong, powerful, potent, mighty, cruel, oppresive, cross, transverse, oblique, slanting
ar draws = across, over, upon, about
traws(i)af, trawsu, traws(i)o = to move/cut across, cross, turn sideways
trawsedd = perverseness, obstinacy, rebellion
trawseddaf, trawseddu = to offend, transgress
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) tres = adverse, cross, forward
adres = across
Cornish (Kernewek) treus = pass
treusfurvyaz = transform
a-dreus = across
Old Breton (Brethonoc) tros = traverse, distance
Middle Breton (Brezonec) treuz, treus, trez = traverse, distance
Breton (Brezhoneg) treuz [trøːs] = traverse. distance, height
a-dreuz = across, traverse
treuzer = ferry
treuzerezh = crossing
treuzfurmin = to transform
treuzkas = to transmit
treuzkaser = transmitter
treuzlat = transfer

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *terh₂- (to cross over, pass through, overcome) [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Betwixt and Between

Here are some words for betwixt, between, among and related things in Celtic languages.

Porth Penrhyn

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *enter = betwen
Gaulish Entarabo = name of a god
Celtiberian enterara = between
Old Irish (Goídelc) eter = between
etrom, etrum = between me
etrut = between you (sg)
etir, itir = between him
etron(n), etrunn = between us
etruib = between you (pl)
etarru, etarro = between them
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) eter, etir, etar-, etr- = inter-, between, among
etrom, etrum = between me
etrut = between you (sg)
eadra, etir = between him
etronn, etrunn, eadrainn, eadroinn = between us
etruib, eadruibh, eadraibh = between you (pl)
et(t)arru, etarro, etorro = between them
Irish (Gaeilge) idir [ˈɪdʲəɾʲ/ˈɛdʲəɾʲ/ˈɛd̪ˠəɾʲ] = between, both
eadrainn = between us
eadraibh = between you (pl)
eatarthu = between them
idirchéim = interval
idircheol = interlude
idirchuir = to interpose
idirfhigh = to interweave
idirmhír = intersection
idirlíon = internet
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) eadar [edər] = between
eadarainn = between us
eadaraibh = between you (pl)
eatarra = between them
eadar-aghaidh [edərˈɤ.ɪ] = interface
eadar-cheangailte = interconnected
eadar-cheangal = interlinking, interconnecting, communications
eadar dà sgeul = incidentally (“between two stories”)
eadar-dhealtaichte = parted, separated, differing, distinct
eadar-lìon = internet
eadar-theangachadh = translating, translation
Manx (Gaelg) eddyr [ˈɛðˌər] =between, betwixt
eddyr ain = between us
eddyr eu = between you (pl)
eddyr oc = between them
eddyr-ashoonagh = international(ist)
eddyrcheim = interval
eddyr-chianglt = interconnected
eddyr-ghoaillagh = intermediary
eddyr-hengaghey = to interpret, interpretation
eddyr-voggyl = internet
Proto-Brythonic *ɨntr = between
Old Welsh ithr = between
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ythr = between
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) ynter, yntré = between, among
yntredho = between him
yntredhon = between us
ynterdhoch, yntredhouch = between ye
yntredhe = between them
Cornish (Kernewek) ynter, yntra = between
ynterdhyskyblethek = interdisciplinary
ynterfas = interface
Old Breton (Brethonoc) ithr = between, among
Middle Breton (Brezonec) entre, intre = between, among
Breton (Brezhoneg) etre [e.ˈtre] = between, intermediate, while, as long as
etrezon = between me
entrezout = between you (sg)
entrezañ = between him
entrezi = between her
etrezomp = between us
entrezoc’h = between you (pl)
entrezo, entreze = between them
etrebazhin, etrebazhiñ = to interpose
etrekeltiek = inter-Celtic
etrelakaat = to interpose
etrevroadel = international

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₁entér (between), from *h₁én (in) [source]. Words from the same PIE roots include enter and under in English. onder (under, downwards) in Dutch, unter (under, below, among, between) in German, ndër (between, among, in, through) in Albanian [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) rỽng, rỽg, rug, rwng = between
kyfrwg, kyfrug, kyfrwng = means, medium, agency, interval, midst
Welsh (Cymraeg) rhwng, yrhwng [r̥ʊŋ] = between
rhyngddo i = between me
rhyngddot ti = between you (sg)
rhyngddo fe/fo = between him
rhyngddi hi = between her
rhyngddon ni = between us
rhyngddoch chi = between you (pl)
rhyngddyn nhw = between them
rhyngberthynol = interrelated, mutually connected
rhyngol = intermediate, mediatory
rhyngrwyd = internet
rhyngwladol = international
cyfrwng = means, medium, agency, interval, midst

Etymology: unknown [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) plith, plyth = midst, middle, centre, between, amongst
ymplith, em plyth, ymlith, ymhlith = among(st), in or to (the midst of), (together) with
Welsh (Cymraeg) plith = midst, middle, centre, between, amongst
plithdraphlithdod = confusion, disorder
plithwrtaith = compost
tryblith = chaos, disorder, muddle
ymhlith [əmˈɬiːθ] = among(st), in or to (the midst of), (together) with

Etymology: unknown [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Cauldrons and Kettles

Words for cauldron, kettle, pot and related things in Celtic languages.

Cauldron

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *kʷaryos = cauldron
Gaulish *parios = cauldron
Old Irish (Goídelc) coire [ˈkorʲe] = cauldron
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) coire [ˈkorʲə] = cauldron, pot, whirlpool
coirén = little pot
Irish (Gaeilge) coire [ˈkɛɾʲə] = large pot, cauldron, boiler, corrie, cirque, amphitheatre, deep mountain hollow, pit, whirlpool
coire bolcáin = volcanic crater
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) coire [kɔrʲə] = kettle, corrie, cauldron
coireag [kɔrʲag] = small kettle, small corrie, small cauldron
Manx (Gaelg) coirrey = cauldron, boiler, pothole, hollow in hills, corrie, maelstrom, vent of volcano
Proto-Brythonic *pėr = cauldron
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) peyr, peir, pair = cauldron
peireit, peried = cauldron(ful)
Welsh (Cymraeg) pair [ˈpai̯r] = cauldron, large pot, boiler, melting-pot
peiran = corrie, cwm, cirque (in geology)
peir(i)aid = cauldron(ful)
Old Cornish per = cauldron
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) per = cauldron, kettle, boiler, furnace
Middle Breton (Brezonec) per = cauldron
Breton (Brezhoneg) per [ˈpeːr] = cauldron

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *kʷer- (to do, make, build). Words from the same roots include Britain, Brittany and karma in English, and words for time and shape in Celtic languages [source].

The city of Paris in France gets it name from Lutetia Parisiorum (Lutetia of the Parīsiī), a Gallo–Roman town that was established on the Left Bank of the Seine after the Romans conquered the local Gaulish tribe, the Parisioi, or Parīsiī in Latin, in 52 BC. The Gaulish name *Parisioi comes from Gaulish *parios (cauldron) [source].

Old Welsh calaur = cauldron, cooking pot, boiler, kettle
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kallaur, kallawr, callor, callawr = cauldron, cooking pot, boiler, kettle
Welsh (Cymraeg) callor, callawr = cauldron, cooking pot, boiler, kettle
calloriad = the fill or contents of a cauldron
calloryn = a small cauldron, skillet, kettle
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) caltor = kettle
Cornish (Kernewek) kalter = kettle
Middle Breton (Brezonec) cauter = boiler, cauldron, cooking pot
Breton (Brezhoneg) kaoter [ˈko.tɛr] = boiler, cooking pot
kaoteriad [kɔ.ˈtɛ.rjat] = contents of a pot, Cotriade /Brittany Fish Stew, fish that fishermen bring home for meals
primgaoter [prim.ˈɡo.tɛr] = pressure cooker

Etymology: from Latin caldāria (warm bath, kettle, cooking pot, cauldron, from caldārius (hot water), from cal(i)dus (warm, hot) [source]. The English word cauldron comes from the same roots, as do chowder, caldera and nonchalant [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Stormy Weather

Words for storm and related things in Celtic languages.

Gleann Cholm Cille

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *sīnā = weather
Old Irish (Goídelc) sín [ˈsʲiːn/ˈsʲiːnʲ] = storm, tempest, (bad) weather
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) sín = bad weather, storm, weather, season, circumstances, atmosphere, attitude
Irish (Gaeilge) síon = weather (usually bad, stormy)
síonra = atmospheric agencies, elements
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sian [ʃiən] = violent weather, the elements, whizzing sound, squall, shriek
sianach [ʃiənəx] = stormy, squally, shrieking
sianail = (act of) shrieking, yelling
siantach [ʃiən̪ˠdəx] = pertaining to generally bad weather
marcach-siana = spindrift (spray coming off stormy sea), undulating (sheets of) rain
uisge nan seachd sian = almighty downpour, cloudburst, deluge, rainstorm
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) hin = (bad) weather, air
hinda, hindda = dry/fine/fair weather
hinon = (fair) weather, dry weather, sunshine
hinoni = to become fine, clear up, bask in the sun
Welsh (Cymraeg) hin = (bad) weather, air
hindreuliad = a weathering
hindreuliaf, hindreulio = to weather
hindda = dry/fine/fair weather
hinddanaf, hinddanu = to become fine, clear up (of weather)
hinfynag, = barometer
hinon = (fair) weather, dry weather, sunshine
hinonaf, hinoni = to become fine, clear up, bask in the sun
hinsawdd = climate
Cornish (Kernewek) hin = climate
hinek = climatic
Middle Breton (Brezonec) hynon = serene, clear weather
Breton (Brezhoneg) hin = climate
hinon = serene, serenity
hinoniñ = to have a peaceful time

Etymology: possibly related to Proto-Celtic *sīniti (to stretch, extend), from *sīros (long), from PIE *seh₁- (long, lasting), or *temp- (to stretch) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) anfud = tempest, storm
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) anbod, anfud = tempest, storm, turbulence, fury, rage
anfadach = stormy, perturbed, agitated
Irish (Gaeilge) anfa [ˈanˠəfˠə] =storm, tempest
anfach = stormy, rough, tempestuous
anfacht = storminess

Etymology: unknown [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) doinenn = stormy weather, tempest
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) doinenn = foul or stormy weather, tempest
doinennta = stormy, tempestuous, inclement
Irish (Gaeilge) doineann [ˈd̪ˠɪn̠ʲən̪ˠ] = stormy weather, storm. wintriness, cheerlessness
doineanta = stormy, wild, inclement (weather), wintry, cheerless (person)
doineantach = cheerless, cold-mannered, person; gloomy old man
doineantacht = storminess, inclemency (weather), wintriness, cheerlessness (demeanour)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) doineann [dɤn̪ʲan̪ˠ] = storm, tempest
doineannach [dɔn̪ʲən̪ˠəx] = stormy
doireannach [dɔrʲən̪ˠəx] = stormy
Manx (Gaelg) dorrin = storm, tempest
dorrinagh = stormy, tempestuous
dorrinys = storminess, tempestuousness, raging

Etymology: unknown [source].

Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) stoirm = storm
Irish (Gaeilge) stoirm [ˈsˠt̪ˠɪɾʲəmʲ] = storm, bluster, rage
stoirmeach = stormy, tempestuous
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) stoirm [sdɤrʲɤm] = storm
stoirmeil [sdɤrʲɤmal] = stormy
Manx (Gaelg) sterrym = storm
sterrymagh = stormy
sterrymid = storminess
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ystorm, ystorym = storm, tempest
Welsh (Cymraeg) (y)storm = storm, tempest
(y)stormio = to become stormy, bluster, rain heavily, rant, scold
(y)stormus = stormy, tempestuous, turbulent, boisterous

Etymology: from Middle English storm (storm, dispute, brawl, fight), from Old English storm (storm), from Proto-West-Germanic *sturm (storm), from Proto-Germanic *sturmaz (storm), from PIE *(s)twerH- (to stir up, agitate, urge on, propel) [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tywyd = weather
Welsh (Cymraeg) tywydd [ˈtəu̯.ɨ̞ð / ˈtəu̯.ɪð] = weather, bad or stormy weather
tywyddiant = meterology
tywyddol = pertaining to the weather
Cornish (Kernewek) tewedh = storm
tewedha = to weather

Etymology: unknown

More about words for weather (and time) in Celtic languages.

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Bees

Words for bee, sting and related things in Celtic languages.

Bee

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *bekos/*bikos = bee
Old Irish (Goídelc) bech [bʲex] = bee
Middle Irish bech [bʲex] = bee
bechlann [bʲex] = beehive
bechatoir, beachadoir = (hereditary) beekeeper
bechda = full of bees
Irish (Gaeilge) beach [bʲax] = bee
beachaire = beekeeper, beehive
beachaireacht = beekeeping
beachlann = apiary
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) beach [bɛx] = bee, wasp
beachach [bɛxəx] = pertaining to or abounding in bees or wasps
beachair [bɛxɪrʲ] = beehive
beachan [bjaxər̪ˠn̪ˠ] = small bees or wasps
Proto-Brythonic *bɨg = bee
Middle Welsh (Cymraeg) byg = bee
bedaf, bydaf = bees’ nest, beehive
bygegyr = drone
Welsh (Cymraeg) bygegyr, begegyr = drone
bydaf = swarm or nest of (wild) bees, bees’ nest and honey therein, beehive

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Indo-European *bʰik-/bʰoyk- (bee), from*bʰey- (bee) [source]. Words from the same roots include bee in English, and fuco (drone – male bee) in Italian [source].

Middle Irish teillenn = swarm of bees
Irish (Gaeilge) seileán = (wild) honey bee
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) seillean [ʃel̪ʲan] = bee
Manx (Gaelg) shellan [ˈʃɛlʲan] = bee
shelleig, shellaig = beehive, hive

Etymology: unknown [source].

Proto-Celtic *wan-inyo- = bee (?)
Middle Welsh (Cymraeg) gwanan, gwenyn = bees
gwenynen, guenenen = bee
gwenynllestyr = beehive
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwenyn = bees
gwenynen = bee
gwenynaf, gwenynu = to keep bees
gwenynllais = a humming (of bees)
gwenynlle = beehive
gwenynog = apiary, bee-garden, pertaining to bees, abounding in bees
gwenynydd = beekeeper, apiarist
gwenynyddiaeth = beekeeping
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) gwanan, gwenyn = bees
gwenynen, guenenen = bee
Cornish (Kernewek) gwenen = bees
gwenenen = bee
gwenen sia = bumble bee
Middle Breton (Brezonec) guenan, guënan = bees
guenanenn, guennanen = bee
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwenan, gwenen, gweren = bees
gwenanenn = bee
gwenaneg = apiary
gwenaner = beekeeper
gwenanerezh = beekeeping, apiculture

Etymology: from Proto-Celtic *wano- (tip, sting) [source], from PIE *gʷʰen- (to strike, slay, kill). Words from the same root include bane, defend, fence and gun , and words for to stab, sting, wound, etc. in Celtic languages (see below) [source].

Proto-Celtic *gʷaneti = to strike, wound, kill, slay
Old Irish (Goídelc) gonaid [ˈɡonɨðʲ] = to pierce, wound
con·goin = to pierce, wound
Middle Irish gonaid = to pierce, wound
Irish (Gaeilge) goin = to wound, stab, sting, hurt
goinbhlasta = piquant
goineach = wounding, piercing, hurtful
goineadóir = wounder, sharp-tongued person
goineog = stab, sting, prick, cutting remark, thrust, gibe
goineogacht = cutting remarks, gibing
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) goin [gɔn̪ʲ] = wound, stab, sting, stabbing, stinging
goineag [gɔnag] = nip, pinch, twitch, canine (tooth)
goineanta [gɔn̪ʲən̪ˠdə] = keen, piercing
gointe [gɔn̪ʲdʲə] = sorely wounded, bewitched
gointeach [gɔn̪ʲdʲəx] = wounding, stabbing, stinging, agonizing
Manx (Gaelg) guin = pain, stitch, pang
guinn = insect bite, pain, smart
guinney = needle, pain, sting, wound, wounding
gonnid = pain, peevishness, smarting, soreness
Proto-Brythonic *gwėnɨd [ɡwe̝ˈnɨːð] = to strike, kill
*ėdwėnɨd = to strike again
Middle Welsh (Cymraeg) gvant, guant, gwanu = to stab, prick, deeply, pierce
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwanu [ˈɡwanɨ̞ / ˈɡwa(ː)ni] = to stab, prick, deeply, pierce, perforate, penetrate, kill, strike, thrust (also written gwanaf or gwân)
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) gwane = to thrust, penetrate, pierce, stab, stick
gwenys, gwynys = pierced, stabbed, stung
Cornish (Kernewek) gwana = to pierce, stab, sting
gwan = jab, prick, sting
omwana = to stab oneself
Middle Breton (Brezonec) goano, goanaff, goan = to prick, grip, squeeze, annoy
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwanañ = to sting, punish, macerate
gwanerezh = maceration
gwanikennan = to prick

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *gʷʰénti (to be striking down, killing, slaying), from*gʷʰen- (to strike, slay, kill) [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Modestly Humble

Words for modest and related things in Celtic languages.

Modestly Humble

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *wēlos = modest
Old Irish (Goídelc) fíal [fʲiːa̯l] = becoming, generous, genteel, seemly, well-bred
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) fíal = decorous becoming, seemly (of conduct or behavious), modest, chaste, well-bred, honourable, noble
fíalmar = noble-natured, generous
Irish (Gaeilge) fial [fʲiəlˠ] = seemly, proper, noble, generous, hospitable
fialmhaireacht = open-handedness, generosity
fialmhaitheas = goodness of heart, generosity
fialmhar = open-handed, generous
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fial [fiəl̪ˠ] = generous, unstinting, liberal, open-handed, bountiful, hospitable
fial-chridheachd = altruism
fial-inntinneach = open-minded, liberal-minded
fialach [fiəl̪ˠəx] = generous, unstinting, liberal, open-handed, bountiful, hospitable
fialachd [fiəl̪ˠəxg] = generosity, liberality
fialaiche = provider of hospitality
Manx (Gaelg) feoilt = benevolent, bountiful, generous, munificent
feoiltagh = benevolent, bounteous, free, lavish, liberal, unselfish
Old Welsh (Kembraec) guiled = shame
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) guyl, gwyl, gŵyl = modest, bashful, unassuming, unobstrusive
guilat, gwylat = merry, glad, lively
gwylder = modesty, bashfulness, humility, feeling faint
gvilet, gwylet, gwyled = modesty, humility, gentleness, shame
Welsh (Cymraeg) gŵyl = [ɡuːɨ̯l/ɡʊi̯l] = modest, bashful, unassuming, unobstrusive, mild, tender, gentle, gracious, joyous, glad, generous, kind
gwylad = merry, glad, lively
gwyldeb = modesty, bashfulness
gwylader, gwyldra = modesty, bashfulness, humility, feeling faint
gwyledd = modesty, humility, gentleness, meekness, courtesy, graciousness, joy, shame

Etymology: possibly from the PIE *wey- (turn) or *wāg- (to be bent), which is related to vagus (wandering, roaming) in Latin, from which we get the English words vague and vagabond [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) umal [ˈuṽal] = humble, obedient
umaldóit = humility
umlaigid = to humble
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) umal = humble, obedient, submissive
umaldóit, omaldóit, umallóit = humility
uimligid, huimligte, umlaigid = to humble
Irish (Gaeilge) umhal [uəl̪ˠ/uːlˠ] = humble, submissive, lithe, supple, plant
umhlaigh = to humble, bow, submit, obey, stoop
umhlaíocht = humility, submission, obedience, dutifulness, respect
umhlóid = humility, submission, lowly service, attendence, ministration, suppleness, pliancy
umhlú = genuflection, curtsey, obesiance, submission
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) umhal [ũ.əl̪ˠ] = submissive, obedient, humble, lowly, meek
Manx (Gaelg) imlee = humble, lowly, menial, simple
imlagh = humble, humbling
imlaghey = humble, stoop
Old Welsh (Kembraec) humil = humble
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) huvyll, uvell = merry, glad, lively
uỽyl, vffil = humble, meek, submissive
ufullder, uvyllder = humility
uỽyltaỽd, uvylldaỽt, vuildaud, vffyldaud = humility
Welsh (Cymraeg) ufyl = humble, meek, submissive
ufyllter, ufullter = humility
ufylltod, ufulltod, ufelltod, hufylltod = humility
hyful = humble
Old Cornish (Cernewec) huvel, hyvbl, evall = humble, lowly
huveldot = hunility
hyvla = tp be humble, to be obedient, to obey
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) huvel, hyvbl, evall = humble, lowly
huveldot = hunility
hyvla = tp be humble, to be obedient, to obey
Cornish (Kernewek) uvel = humble, lowly, modest
uvelder = humility
Middle Breton vuel, uuel = humble, meek, lowly
uffuelhat = to humiliate (oneself)
vuelaff, uvelañ = to humble oneself
vueldet, vuheltet = humility, humbleness, meekness
vulder, vuelder, uffuelter = humility, humbleness
Breton (Brezhoneg) uvel [ˈyː.vɛl] = humble, meek, lowly
uvelded, uvelder = humility, humbleness, meekness
uvelaat = to humiliate

Etymology: from the Latin humilis (low, lowly, small, slight, shallow), which is also the root of the English word humility, the French humilité (humility), and the humildad (humility, humbleness) [source].

The Cornish word klor means meek, mild, moderate, modest and klorder means modesty. Their origins are not known

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Barnacles & Limpets

Words for barnacle, limpet and related things in Celtic languages.

Limpet Family at Sunny Cove

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *barinākos = barnacle, limpet
Gaulish *barinākā = barnacle, limpet
Old Irish (Goídelc) *bairnech = limpet
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) bairnech, báirnech = limpet(s)
Irish (Gaeilge) bairneach [ˈbˠɑːɾˠn̠ʲəx] = limpet
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bàirneach [baːr̪ˠn̪ʲəx] = barnacle, limpet
Manx (Gaelg) baarnagh, barnagh, bayrnagh = barnacle
guiy bayrnag = barnacle goose
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) brennik = limpets
Welsh (Cymraeg) brennig = limpets
brenigen = limpet
Middle Cornish brennic = limpets
brennigen = limpet
Cornish (Kernewek) brennik = limpets
brenigen, bernigen = limpet
Middle Breton brennik = limpet
Breton (Brezhoneg) brennig [ˈbrɛ.nːik] = barnacles, limpets
brennigenn = barnacle, limpet
brennika = to fish for limpets
brennikaer = limpet fisherman

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *barinā (rocky ground), and *-ākos (involved with, belonging to) [source].

Words from the same Proto-Celtic roots, via the Gaulish *barinākā and the Latin barnēca (barnacle goose, barnacle, limpet), include bernache (barnacle) in French, barnacle in English, barnacla (brent/brant goose – Branta bernicla) in Spanish [source].

Barnacle Geese

Old Irish (Goídelc) gigrann = barnacle goose
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) gigrann, giugrann = wild goose, barnacle goose
Irish (Gaeilge) giúrann = barnacle, shipworm, barnacle (goose)
giúrannach = encrusted with barnacles
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) giùran [gʲuːran] = barnacle
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gwyran = barnacle goose, barnacles
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwyran = barnacle goose, barnacles
Old Breton (Brethonoc) goirann = barnacle goose, barnacles

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Celtic *gezdā (goose) – probably of imitative origin [source]. For more details of words for goose in Celtic languages, this post.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Justly Right

Words meaning just, right and related things in Celtic languages.

Justice

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *kowwaris, *komwīros = just, rightful, proper, fitting
Old Irish (Goídelc) cóir = even, fitting, just, proper
córae = justice
córus = justice
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cóir, coair, coir = even, well-proportioned, straight, proper, correct, right, suitable, fitting, just
córae, corae = correctness, propriety, justice, lawsuit, claim, right, proper, peace, amity, concord
córus, corus = justness, rightness, proper arrangement, propriety, peace, agreement
Irish (Gaeilge) cóir [koːɾʲ/kɔːɾʲ] = justice, equity, proper share, due, proper provision, accommodation, proper condition, proper equipment
cóireáil = treatment, treat
cóireanta = neat, tidy
cóirigh = to arrange, dress, mend, repair
cóiríocht = fitness, suitability, accommodation, equipment, fittings, furniture
cóiriú = arrangement, dressing, repair
cóiriúchán = arrangement, dressing
éagóir = injustice, wrong, unfairness, inequity
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) còir [kɔːrʲ] = right, justice, duty, obligation
còireachadh [kɔːrʲəxəɣ] = (act of) arranging, arrangement
còiread [kɔːrʲəd] = probity, goodness, kindness
còrachadh [kɔːrəxəɣ] = arranging, arrangement
Manx (Gaelg) cair = privilege, property, rights, duty, righteousness, due, right, just, good
cair aascreeuee = copyright
cair vie = bon voyage, favourable wind, god speed, pleasant journey
cairagh = fair, impartial, just, proper, justifiable, justly
cairal = right, righteous, upright, upstanding
cairys = applicability, fairness, justice, right, uprightness
cairysagh = right
Proto-Brythonic *küwėr = complete
Old Welsh (Kembraec) couer = fully-equipped, arrayed, furnished, complete, orderly, prepared, ready, correct
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kyveir, kyweir, cyweir = proper order, fit state, repair, provision
kyweyryau, kyỽeirir, kyweirio = to put in order, arrange, prepare, set to rights, repair, restore, equip
kyweiriawdr = one who sets in order, one who promotes unity or harmony; repairer
kyweirwr = repairer, restorer, amender
Welsh (Cymraeg cywair [ˈkəwai̯r] = proper order, fit state, repair, provision, seasoning, state of mind, mood, humour, temper, condition, state, plight, key (in music), song, harmony, fully-equipped, arrayed, furnished, complete, orderly, prepared, ready, correct
cyweiriaf, cyweirio = to put in order, arrange, prepare, set to rights, repair, restore, equip
cyweiriawdr = one who sets in order, one who promotes unity or harmony; repairer
cyweiriedig = arranged, set in order, preserved
cyweir(i)wr = repairer, restorer, amender

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Celtic *kom- (with, together), from PIE *ḱóm (beside, near, by with), and PIE *wīros (true) [source]. Words from the same roots include word for true and related things in Celtic languages, and beware, guard, reward, ward and weir in English [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) cert [kʲer͈t] = fitting, proper, right
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cert = correct, right, proper, fitting, fair, just, straight, even, exact, precise
Irish (Gaeilge) ceart [caɾˠt̪ˠ/cæɾˠt̪ˠ] = right, just, proper, true, correct, true, real, good, excellent
ceartaigh = to correct, rectify, amend, expound, mend
ceartaiseach = insistent on one’s rights, self-righteous, dogmatic, conceited, priggish
ceartaiseacht = self-righteousness, conceit, priggishness
ceartaitheach = corrective, amending
ceartaitheoir = corrector, rectifier, reformer, chastiser
ceartas = justice, rights
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ceart [kʲar̪ˠʃd = right, justice, propriety, righteousness, accurate, correct, proper, right
ceartachadh [kʲar̪ˠʃdəxəɣ] = correcting, putting right, rectifying, correction
ceartachair = corrector, rectifier, regulator
ceartachd [kʲar̪ˠʃdəxg] = correctness
ceartas = [kʲar̪ˠʃdəs] = justice, right, equity
Manx (Gaelg) kiart = accurate, concession, correct, due, equity, even, exact, just, orthodox, precise, right
kiartaghey = to accommodate, adjust, amend
kiartys = accuracy, correctness, exactness
kiartyn = rights
Proto-Brythonic *kerθ = right, true, certain, vehement, terrible, awful, fine, wonderful
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kerth = right(s), true, certain, vehement, terrible, awful, fine, wonderful
kerthrwydd = integrity, justice, awfulness
Welsh (Cymraeg certh [kɛrθ] = right(s), true, certain, vehement, terrible, awful, fine, wonderful, truth
certhrwydd = integrity, justice, awfulness

Etymology: from Latin certus (certain, fixed), from Proto-Italic *kritos, from *krinō (to sift, separate, distinguish, discern), from PIE *krey- (to sift, separate, divide) [source]. Words from the same roots include certo (certain, sure, reliable) in Italian, cierto (true, certain, specific) in Spanish, and certain, crime, crisis, discreet and secret in English [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Worms & Maggots

Today we’re looking at the words for worm, maggot and related things in Celtic languages.

Earth Worm

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *kʷrimis = worm
Old Irish (Goídelc) cruim [kruṽʲ] = maggot, worm
crumdoma = maggot heap
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) cruim, crúim = worm, maggot
crumach = full of reptiles
crumdoma = dunghill
cromóc = maggot
Irish (Gaeilge) cruimh = maggot, larva, grub, tiny insect, worm
crumhóg = maggot
cruimheach = maggoty
cruimheachán = venemous person
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cnuimh [krɯ̃ĩv] = maggot, grub, worm
cnuimheach [krɯ̃ĩvəx] = maggoty
cnuimheag [krɯ̃ĩvag] = maggot, grub, worm
cnuimhneag [krɯ̃ĩvn̪ˠʲag] = maggot, worm
Manx (Gaelg) crooag = (flesh) worm, grub, maggot, worm
crooagagh = maggoty, wormy
Proto-Brythonic *prɨβ̃ [ˈprɨβ̃] = worm
Old Welsh prem = insect, fly, larva, maggot, grub, worm
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) pryuet, pryf = insect, fly, larva, maggot, grub, worm
pryuyedic = abounding in / infested with worms or maggots
Welsh (Cymraeg) pryf [prɨːv/priːv] = insect, fly, larva, maggot, grub, worm
pryfedaf, pryfedu, pryfedo = to breed worms of maggots, to become infested with worms or maggots
pryfediad = worm or maggot infestation
pryfedig = wormeaten, maggoty
pryfeteg = entomology
pryfiedig = abounding in / infested with worms or maggots
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) pref, prêv, pryf = any small animal, a vermin, an insect, a worm, a reptile
Cornish (Kernewek) pryv, prev = crawling animal, grub, insect, worm, weevil
pryv del = caterpillar
pryv prenn woodworm
pryvladher = insecticide
Middle Breton (Brezonec) preff, preuet, prenvv = worm
Breton (Brezhoneg) preñv = worm
preñvedik = vermiculated
preñvek = vermicular, wormlike, wormy
eneppreñveg, eneppreñvek = wormable

Etymology: from PIE *kʷŕ̥mis (worm) [source]. Words from the same root include cirmenis (maggot, grub) in Latvian, kirmis (worm) in Lithuanian, käärme (snake) in Finnish, کرم (kerm – worm) in Persian, and červ (worm, maggot) in Czech and Slovak [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) dorb = worm, larva
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) dorb = small insect or worm
Irish (Gaeilge) doirb [kɑbʲ/kabʲ] = water beelte
doirbeach = infested with water beetles
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) doirb [dɤrʲɤb] = unspecific term for a small/tiny/insignificant creature (e.g. minnow, worm, leech, small person)
Manx (Gaelg) durrag = cabbage worm, larva of cabbage moth

Etymology: unknown

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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