Hiding & Concealment

Words for hide, conceal and related words in Celtic languages.

hiding

Words marked * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *kelo- = to hide
*keleti = to hide, conceal
Old Irish (Goídelc) ceilid = to hide, conceal
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ceilid = to hide, conceal, admit, allow, concede, withhold, hoard, suppress, destroy
ceilt = act of hiding, concealing, suppressing
cel = concealment, dissolution, extinction, death
celt = covering, garment, clothing
celtair = concealment, covering, garment, cloak
Irish (Gaeilge) ceil [kɛlʲ] = to conceal, suppress, withhold
ceileantas = concealment, secrecy
ceileatram = disguise, veneer
ceilt = concealment, withholding, denial
ceilteanas = concealment
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ceil [kʲel] = concealment, death (archaic)
ceileadh [kʲeləɣ] =(act of) concealing, hiding
ceilear [kʲelər] = concealer, someone who hides, screener
ceilt [kʲeldʲ] = concealment
ceilte [kʲeldʲə] = concealed, hidden
ceilteach [kʲeldʲəx] = concealing, reserved
Manx (Gaelg) keill = to hide
keiltyn = to coneal, cover (up), disguies, hide, shelter; concealment, dissimulation, suppression
keiltynys = camouflage, furtiveness, hiding
Proto-Brythonic *kelɨd =
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cêl, cel = hiding, concealment, shelter
kelv, kelu, kely = to hide, conceal
celadwy, keladwy = hidden, concealed, private, secret
keledic = hidden, concealed, secret
Welsh (Cymraeg) cêl [kɛːl/keːl] = hiding, concealment, shelter, bower, hidden, secret
celaf, celu [ˈkɛlɨ̞/ˈkeːli/ˈkɛli] = to hide, conceal, keep secret
celadwy = hidden, concealed, private, secret
celdy = bower, arbour
celedig = hidden, concealed, secret, dissembled
celedigaeth = concealment, secrecy
celedd = secretiveness, caution
datgelaf, datgelu = to reveal, detect, blab, solve
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) celes, celys, kelys = to conceal, hide
Cornish (Kernewek) kel = hidden, secret
keles = to conceal, hide
keles ha kavos = hide-and-seek

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ḱéleti (to be covering, hiding), from *ḱel- (to cover) [source].

Words from the same roots include words for cell and church in Celtic languages, cell, cellar, clandestine, conceal, hall, hell, helmet and occult in English, and the name William [source].

Words such as Celt and Celtic, and their equivalents in other languages possibly come from the same Proto-Celtic roots, via the French celtique (Celtic), Latin Celtae (the Celts) and the Greek Κελτοί (Keltoí) / Κέλται (Kéltai), which is what Herodotus called the Gauls. They might have originally meant something like ‘descendents of the hidden one (the underworld deity)’, and according to Julius Caesar, the Gauls claimed descent from an underworld god [source].

In Breton, kuzh means secret and confidential, and kuzhat means to hide. They are cognate with the Welsh words cudd (concealment, secrecy) and cuddio (to hide, conceal), and the Cornish words kudh (concealed, hidden, secret) and kudha (to conceal, hide). See the Celtiadur post Mysterious Secrets for more details.

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Haughty Pride

Words for pride, arrogance, vanity and related things in Celtic languages.

Gay Pride

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *auberos = vain
Old Irish (Goídelc) úabar = pride, arrogance
úabrige = pride, arrogance
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) úabar = pride, arrogance, vanity, confidence
úabrach = proud, haughty
úabrigidir = to treat insolently, profane, mock
óbar = vain-glory
anúabar, anuabhar = inordinate pride
comúabar = great pride
Irish (Gaeilge) uabhar = pride, arrogance, spiritedness, exuberance, frolicking, frolicsomeness, rankness, luxuriance, eeriness, feeling of loneliness
anuabhar = overweening pride, excess (of grief, weeping)
aingeal an uabhair = fallen angel
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) uabhar [uəvər̪] = pride, insolence
uabharra [uəvər̪ˠə] = proud, haughty
uaibhreach [uəivr̪ʲəx] = haughty, proud, arrogant
an-uaibhreach = humble
uaibhreas = arrogance, haughtiness
uaibhridh = haughty, proud, arrogant
ro sgrios thig uabhar = pride goes/comes before a fall
Proto-Brythonic *ọβer = vain (?)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ofer, ouer = worthless, vain, useless
ofêra, ouera, ofera = to behave frivolously
overaidd = vain, frivolous
oferbeth, obherbeth = worthless or pointless thing
ofered, oferedd = vanity, unsubstantiality, emptiness, vainglory
ofergoel, ofer-goel = superstition, vain belief
overwr, ouerwr, oferwr = good-for-nothing, waster, idler
Welsh (Cymraeg) ofer [ˈɔvɛr / ˈoːvɛr] = worthless, vain, useless, unnecessary, futile, wasteful, prodigal, unprofitable, frivolous
ofera(f) = to behave frivolously, live dissolutely, trifle, idle, laze, loiter, waste, squander
oferaidd = vain, frivolous, unprofitable, worthless
oferbeth = worthless or pointless thing, trifle, bauble
oferdod = vanity, dissipation, frivolousness
oferedd = vanity, unsubstantiality, emptiness, vainglory
ofergoel = superstition, vain belief, false religion
oferwr = good-for-nothing, waster, idler
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) evereth, ufereth = vanity, idleness, frivolity
Cornish (Kernewek) euver = valueless, worthless
euvergryjyk = superstitious
Middle Breton (Brezonec) euver = bland, insipid, flavourless
Breton (Brezhoneg) euver = bland, spineless(ness), damage

Etymology: from Proto-Celtic *aw- and *ber-o- (to carry), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰéreti (to carry, bear, flow), *bʰer- (to bear, carry) [source].

Words from the same PIE roots include beir (to bear, give birth to, lay, bring, take) in Irish, beir (to bear, give birth to) in Scottish Gaelic, behr (to bear, give birth to) in Manx, bairn (child) in Scots, and bear (to carry), bier, birth, burden, ferret, and fortune in English [source].

Proto-Celtic *balkos = strong
Gaulish balco- = strong (?)
Old Irish (Goídelc) balc = robust, strong, sturdy
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) balc, bailc = stout, strength, sturdy, firm, vigorous, powerful, strength, firmness, vigour
Irish (Gaeilge) bailc = strong, stout
bailcbhéim = strong, heavy, blow
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bailc [balçgʲ] = strong, bold, daring
bailc uisge = sudden, heavy shower
bailceach [balçgʲəx] = stout/strong person
bailceata [balçgʲən̪ˠdə] = stout, strong, boastful
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) balch, bỽlch, beilch = proud, glad, pleased, dignified, splendid, imposing, fine, strong, brave
balchav = to grow proud or arrogant, pride oneself
bylchdaidd = proud, conceited, arrogant, haughty, vain
strong>ualchder, balchder = pride, pleasure, fineness, glory, dignity
ualchdet, balchet = pride, arrogance
Welsh (Cymraeg) balch [balχ] = proud, glad, pleased, dignified, splendid, imposing, fine, strong, brave, conceited, arrogant, haughty, vain, pompous
balchâf, balcháu = to grow proud or arrogant, pride oneself
balchdaidd = proud, conceited, arrogant, haughty, vain
balchder = pride, pleasure, fineness, glory, dignity
balchded = pride, arrogance
balchus = proud, vain
balchwedd = pride, conceit, lofty
belchyn = proud, pompous or self-important person, prig
Cornish (Kernewek) balgh = arrogant
Middle Breton (Brezonec) balc’h = haughty, proud, arrogant
Breton (Brezhoneg) balc’h [ˈbalx] = haughty, proud, arrogant
ambalc’h = reserved, timid
balc’haat = to make or become haughty
balc’hded = superb, arrogance
balc’hder = = pride, arrogance, audacity

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Indo-European *bʰel- (to blow, swell, inflate). A word from the same Proto-Celtic root is balca (bulrush, cattail) in Catalan and Occitan [source].

Words from the same PIE root include bold in English, boud (bold, brave) in Dutch, and bald (soon, almost) in German [source].

Welsh (Cymraeg) gwrth [ɡʊrθχ] = opposition, objection, resistance, contast, opposite
gwrthâd = taunt, light censure, upbraiding, remorse, conviction
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) goth = pride
gothus, gothys = proud
Cornish (Kernewek) gooth = pride
gothus = proud, arrogant
gorth = obstinate, perverse, stubborn, uppity
gorthus = proud

Etymology: unknown

Old Irish (Goídelc) blad = fame, renown
bladach = famous, renowned, splendid
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) blad, bladh, blath = fame, renown, glories, triumphs
bladach, bladaig = famous, renowned, splendid
bladaigid = praises, extols
Irish (Gaeilge) bláth = pride
Manx (Gaelg) blaa = heyday, pride

Etymology: unknown

Old Irish (Goídelc) borr = huge, large, proud, swollen, thick, vast
borrfadach = bold, high-spirited, proud
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) borr, bórr = big, large, great, vast, mighty, strong, puffed-up, proud
borrach = a proud, pretentious person
borra(i)d = swelling, maturing, blooming, springing, swells, becomes swollen, bloated
Irish (Gaeilge) borr = puffed (up with), proud, luxuriant; to swell, grow
borrach = proud, arrogant person; swollen, proud, arrogant
borrachas = pride, arrogance
borradh = swelling, growth, surge, expansion
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bòrr [bɔːr̪ˠ] = puffed up, swollen, grand, splendid, haughty
borrail = swaggering, boastful
borranachadh = swelling up, puffing up, frothing at the mouth
borraganta = swelling, fierce

Etymology: unknown

Manx (Gaelg) sturd = pride, haughtiness; angry look, menacing look
styrdalys = stateliness
styrdalaght = pride, stateliness

Etymology: unknown

Manx (Gaelg) moyrn = pomp, pride, self-conceit
moyrnagh = haughty, proud, vain, pompous
moyrnee = proud

Etymology: unknown

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Rewarding Gifts

Words for prize and related things in Celtic languages.

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Proto-Celtic *uɸo-kʷrinati = reward (?)
Old Irish (Goídelc) fochraic [ˈfoxriɡʲ] = reward, recompense
terḟochraic, terfhochraic = buying, payment, reward
crenaid = to buy, sell
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) fochraic, fochricc = reward, recompense, payment, fee, hire, rent, compensation
fochrach = a hireling, mercenary
fochricnet = a little reward
terḟochraic, terochraic, turfhochraic = reward, recompense, price, payment, present or payment made by a bridegroom to a bride or her relations
Irish (Gaeilge) fochraig = reward, stipend, fee
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gwobr, gwobyr = reward, prize
gwobr-wŷr = rewarder, giver or taker of bribes, briber
gober, gobruy, gobrwy, gobyr = reward, payment, fee,
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwobr/gwobrwy [ˈɡwɔbr] =reward, prize, desert, recompense, benefit, gift, tip, fee, hire, bribe
gwobrwy = fee, fine
gwobraf, gwobri, gwobru, gwobro = to reward, recompense, compensate, bribe, corrupt
gwobrwr = rewarder, giver or taker of bribes, briber
gwobrwyad = a rewarding, remuneration, bribery
gwobrwyaf, gwobrwyo = to award a prize, reward, recompense, acknowledge
gobr/gobrwy = reward, payment, fee, wages, recompense, gift, merit, desert, bribe
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) gober, gobar, gobyr = recompense, reward, fee, wagews, stipend, hire
goberna = to hire
Cornish (Kernewek) gober = earnings, income, pay, remuneration, reward, salary, wage
gober dilavur/diweythieth = unemployment benefit
gober ispoyntel = minimum wage
gober kleves = sick pay
gober omdednans = pension
gobra = to remunerate, reward
gobrena = to rent
gobrener, gorenores = tenant
Middle Breton (Brezonec) gopr, gobr = wage, salary
gopra = to bet, wager
gopraer, gopraër = mercenary, tenant, lodger
gopraff, gôbret = to put on payroll, give a salary, remunerate
Breton (Brezhoneg) gopr = salary, wages, pay, fee
gopra = to bet, wager, pay, hire
goprad = salary
gopradenn = recompense
goprañ = to put on payroll, give a salary, remunerate

Etymology: from Proto-Celtic from *uɸo (under) and *kʷrināti (to buy) [source]. Some words for to buy in Celtic languages come from the Proto-Celtic root *kʷrināti (to buy)

Proto-Celtic *dānus / *dānus = gift
Gaulish Danomaros = personal name
Old Irish (Goídelc) dán [daːn] = art, gift, poem, skill
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) dán = gift, bestowal, endowment, present, skill, poem, song, verse, rhyme
Irish (Gaeilge) dán [d̪ˠɑ̃ːn̪ˠ/d̪ˠaːn̪ˠ] = gift, offering, craft, calling, art, faculty, art of poetry, poem, lot, fate
dánaigh = to give, bestow
dánlann = art gallery
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dàn [daːn] = poem, song, work, effort
dàn-mòr = epic poem
dàn-molaidh = eulogy
dàn-liriceach = lyric
dàn-fhacal = epigram
dànach = poetic, metric
dànachd = poetry
Manx (Gaelg) daan = poem
daan mooar = epic
daan moyllee = hymn
Proto-Brythonic *dọn = gift, blessing
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) daun, davn, dawn = gift, talent
dawnget, dawnged = gift, benefit, favour
dawngoeth, down-goeth = finely gifted or endowed
dawnha = to endow with a gift or benefit, to bless
donnwy, donyer, donya = to endow, bless, give, present
donyauc, donyawc, doniog = gifted, endowed, talented
Welsh (Cymraeg) dawn [dau̯n] = faculty, intellectual gift, talent, genius, humour, wit, grace, benefit, blessing, favour, reward, present, donation
dawnaf, dawno = to fare, get on
dawnaidd = gifted, endowed with or showing ability
dawnedigaeth = gift, a giving or conferring, endowment, grace
dawnged = gift, benefit, favour
dawngoeth = finely gifted or endowed
dawnhaf, dawnhau = to endow with a gift or benefit, to bless
doniaf, donio = to endow, bless, give, present
doniog = gifted, endowed, talented, bountiful, liberal, fortunate, advantageous
doniol = gifted, talented, endowed, eloquent
Middle Breton (Brezonec) donaison, donaeson, donaezon = gift, talent, donation
donaesonaff = to donate
donaesonner, donaesoner = donor
Breton (Brezhoneg) donezon = gift, talent, donation
donezoner = donor
donezoniñ = to donate, present, reward, gratify

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *déh₃nom (gift), from *deh₃- (to give) [source].

Words from the same PIE roots include date, donate, dose and vend in English, don (gift, talent, knack) in French, dom (talent) in Portuguese, and don (gift, present, talent, knack) in Spanish [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) dúas = reward, gift
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) dúas, dúáis, duais = gift, reward (esp. a recompense give to poets)
dúasach = reward- or gift-bestowing, munificent, gift-bestower, rewarder
dúasad = act of benefiting, rewarding
frithdúas = a counter-reward, the payment made to the receiter
Irish (Gaeilge) duais = gift, reward, prize, stake, prize, prize-winning
duaisbhanna = prize-bond
duaiseach = bountiful, generous
duaiseoir = prizewinner
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) duais [duəʃ] = prize, bonus, reward, purse (in sports)
duais-bhrathaidh = bribe (reward for betrayal)
duais-roinn = dividend
duais-earrainn = dividend
duais-airgid = (monetary) prize
duais-barrachd = premium
duaiseachadh [duəʃəxəɣ] = awarding, gratifying, gratification
duaismhor duəʃ(v)ər] = liberal, bountiful

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Indo-European *deh₃- (to give) [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

With and Without

Words for with, without, by and related things in Celtic languages.

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Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

The emphatic forms of this word combined with personal pronouns are shown after the /.

Proto-Celtic *letos = side
Old Irish (Goídelc) la [la] = with, beside, by, belonging to, among; in the language of, in the opinion of
lem(m), lim(m), leim, lium(m) / lemsa, li(u)msa = with me
lat(t) / latso, latsu = with you (sg)
leiss, les(s), lais(s), letha / le(i)som, laisem = with him
l(a)ee, lǽ / lési = with her
li(u)nn, le(i)nn, linn(a)i = with us
lib / libsi = with you (pl)
leu, léu leo, lethu / leusom, leosom = with them
lam = with my
lat = with your (sg)
lia = with his/hers/its/their
liar = with our
lassa = with, which
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) la = beside, by, touching, along with, in the same direction as, following to course of, in the company of
lem(m), lim(m), lium = with me
lat(t), let = with you (sg)
leiss, less, les = with him
lee, laee, lea = with her
lenn, leinn, linn = with us
lib = with you (pl)
leu, leo = with them
Irish (Gaeilge) le [lʲɛ] = with, to, for, by, against, in proximity to, in contact with, beside, towards, facing, open to, along the face of, in company with, at, against
liom / liomsa = with me
leat / leatsa = with you (sg)
leis / leis-sean = with him
léi / léise = with her
linn / linne = with us
libh / libhse = with you (pl)
leo / leosan = with them
le mo, lem = with my
le do, led = with your (sg)
lena = with his/hers/its
lenár = with our
lena = with their
le haghaidh = for, near, in store for
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) le [le] = with, by, using, in possession of, in favour of, downhill, downstream, lee(ward), port(side)
leam / leamsa = with me
leat / leatsa = with you (sg)
leis / leissan = with him
leatha / leathase = with her
leinn / leinne = with us
leibh / libhse = with you (pl/frm)
leotha / leothasan = with them
Manx (Gaelg) lesh [lɛʃ] = for, with, toward
lhiam / lhiams = with me
lhiat / lhiats = with you (sg)
lesh / leshsyn = with him
lhee / lheeish = with her
lhien / lhienyn = with us
lhiu / lhiuish = with you (pl)
lhieu / lhieusyn = with them

Etymology: from Proto-Celtic *letos (side), which is possibly related to *ɸletos (side) [source].

Words for half, side, wide, broad and related things in Celtic languages possibly come from the same roots [more details].

Proto-Celtic *writu = against
*writbero = to come against, return
*writkomfarsko- = to ask
*writtongo = to renounce
Old Irish (Goídelc) fri [fʲrʲi] = towards, against, along, beside, close to, on the point of
frimm, frium(m) / fri(u)msa = against me
frit(t), friut(t) / fritso, fritsu = against you (sg)
fris(s) / frissom, frissium = against him
frie = against her
frinn / finn(a)i = against us
frib / fribsi = against you (pl)
friu / friusom = against them
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fri = towards, facing, turned to, against, alongside, by, next to, at, in contact with
frim(m), frium / fri(u)msa = against me
frit(t), friutt / fritsu = against you (sg)
fris(s) / frissom = against him
frie, friae / frise = against her
fri(u)nn, frind / finn(a)i = against us
frib, frithib / fribsi = against you (pl)
friu / friusom = against them
Irish (Gaeilge) re [rˠeː] = with, to, for, by, against (archaic, le is used instead)
fara [ˈfˠaɾˠə] = along, with, beside, in addition to (rare, used in Munster)
frae, fré [fˠɾˠeː] = with, along with (used in Connacht)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ri [rʲi] = against, busy with, engaged in, to, than
ruim/ ruimsa = against me
ruit / riutsa = against you (sg)
ris / ris-san = against him
rithe / rithese = against her
rinn / rinne = against us
ribh / ribhse = against you (pl)
riutha / riuthasan = against them
Manx (Gaelg) rish [rɪʃ] = along, beside, by, during, for
rhym / rhyms = to me
rhyt / rhyts = to you (sg)
rish / rishyn = to him
r’ee / r’eeish = to her
rooin / rooinyn = to us
riu / riuish = to you (pl)
roo / roosyn = to them
Old Welsh gurth = by, at, near
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) wrth, vrth, Ỽrth = by, at, near
Welsh (Cymraeg) (g)wrth [(g)ʊrθ / (g)ʊθ] = by, at, near, close to, opposite, facing, in contact with, on, against, also, with, beside, because of, as a result of, about, concerning
wrth angen = according to need, as necessary
wrth angor = at anchor
wrth fron = near, close to, at the point of, almost
wrth law, wrth y llaw = nearby, at hand, by hand
wrth fynd heibio = in passing (of comment)
wrth ben = on top of, above, over
Old Cornish gurth = by
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) (w)orth = at, by, to, for, with
(w)orthyf of/from/to/against me
(w)orthys = of/from/to/against thee
(w)orto = by/upon him or it
(w)orty = by/upon her or it
(w)orthyn = of/from/to/against us
(w)ortheuch = of/from/to you
orte, worté = by/upon them
Cornish (Kernewek) orth = against, at
orth ow brys = in my opinion
orth bodh ow brys = intentionally
orth niver = in number
Middle Breton (Brezonec) oz, ouz, ouc’h, oud = against, to, of, opposite
Breton (Brezhoneg) ouzh [us] = towards, to, against
ouzh beg = below, at the bottom (of)
diouzh [ˈdiːus/ˈdjuːs] = of, according to
diouzh re = in case of need, if necessary
diouzhtu [djusˈtyː] = immediately

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *wert- (to turn) [source].

Conjugated forms in Welsh, Cornish and Breton

English words from the same PIE root include divert, invert, pervert, verse, verus, vortex and worth [source].

Proto-Celtic *kanta = together with
*kantyos = assembly, gathering
Gaulish *kantyos = assembly, gathering
cantio = assembly, gathering
Old Irish (Goídelc) cét- = with
céite = assembly, hill, mound
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cét- = with
céite = hill, mound, open space, racecourse, meeting-place, assembly, square, market-place
Old Welsh cant = by, at, near
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) can, cann, gen, gant, gan = with, together with
genhyf = with me
genhyt = with thee
gant(h)aw = with him or it
gent(h)i = with her or it
genhym, genhyn, gennyn = with us
genhwch, gennwch = with you
gantu(d), gantunt, ganthud = with them
gid, y gyd, kyd, gyt = with, together with
Welsh (Cymraeg) gan [ɡan] = with, together with, alongside, beside, by (means of), through, because of, on account of, from , of
gyda = with, together with, in addition to, in the company of, close by, next to, alongside, besides, for
Old Cornish cant, cans = with, by
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) gan, gans = with, by
genef, gynef = with me
genes, gynes = with thee
ganso = with him or it
gynsy = with her or it
genen, gynen = with us
geneuch = with you
gansé = with them
Cornish (Kernewek) gans = by, with
gans ganow = by word of mouth
gans golow, gans tan = alight, lit
gans henna = thereby
gans oll ow holon vy = sincerely yours
gans pub bolonjedh da = with all good wishes
Middle Breton (Brezonec) gant = with, on the occasion of, so much
Breton (Brezhoneg) gant [ˈɡãnt] = with, because of
digant = with, of

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *ḱóm (with) [source].

Conjugated forms in Welsh, Cornish and Breton

Proto-Celtic *sekʷo- = besides, without
Old Irish (Goídelc) sech [sʲex] = past, beyond, different from, more than
sechum = different from me
sechut = different from you (sg)
sech(a)e, sechæ = different from him
secce = different from her
sechund = different from us
seccu = different from them
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) sech = past, beyond, different from, more than,
sechum, seacham , seocham = different from me
sechut, seachad, seochad = different from you (sg)
(se)chae, secha, sechai = different from him
seochu, seacha = different from him
secci, seicce, seice = different from her
sechund, sechoind, seachoinn = different from us
sechaib = different from you (pl)
seccu, seocu, seoca = different from them
Irish (Gaeilge) seach [ʃax] = by, past, beyond, other than, more than
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) seach [ʃɛx] = compared with/to, in preference to, past, by, rather than
seach-rathad = bypass, relief road, byway
seach-thìm = overtime
Manx (Gaelg) shagh [ʃax] = past
shaghey = bye, bygone, past, delay, prolong, neglected
shiaghey = past
shagh-votal = proxy vote
shagh-chlou = offprint
shagh-teiyder = proxy
Proto-Brythonic *heb = besides, without
Old Welsh hep = without
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) heb, hep = without, past
hebof, hebofy = without me
hebot = without thee
hebddaw = without him or it
hebddi, hebdi, hebti = without her or it
hebom, heibom = without us
heboch = without you
hebddudd = without them
heb law, hebillaw, heb-law = besides, not counting
eb vn ail = without peer, incomparable, unrivalled
heb annot = without delay, immediately
Welsh (Cymraeg) heb [hɛb/heːb] = without, minus, free from, void of, lacking, in the absence of, past, besides, in addition to, not including, excluding, apart from,
heblaw = besides, not counting, over and above, in addition to, except, but, without, past
heb ei ail, heb (un) ail = without peer, incomparable, unrivalled
heb annod = without delay, immediately
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) heb, hep = without, destitute, void of
hebford = without a road
Cornish (Kernewek) heb = witout
heb ahwer = readily
heb bri = irrelevant
heb danjer = safely
heb difuna = dormant
heb diwedh = endlessly, continuously, eternal
Old Breton ep = without
Middle Breton (Brezonec) hep, hemp, eb = without
hep quen, ep quen, hemb kin, epken = only
hep muy, hep-mui = without further …, only
hep muy quen, hep mui quen = only
Breton (Brezhoneg) hep [hep] = without
hepken = only, exclusiveness
hepmuiken = without further …

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *sekʷ- (to follow) or from *sek- (to cut) [source].

Conjugated forms in Welsh, Cornish and Breton

English words from the same PIE root include sect, sign, signal, social, sue, suit, suite [source].

Proto-Celtic *kina = on this side of
Old Irish (Goídelc) cen [kʲen] = except, without, unbeknownst to, unknown to
cene, cenae [ˈkʲene] = besides, in any case, already
olchene, olchenae [olˈxʲene] = besides, the other(s), the rest
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cen, cin, can, gen, gin, gan = on this side of, apart from, besides, except, without, -less
Irish (Gaeilge) gan [ɡən̪ˠ/ɡan̪ˠ] = without, not
gan amhras = undoubtedly
gan fáth gan ábhar = for no reason whatever
gan fhios = unknown, secretly
gan on = faultless, unblemished
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gun [ɡən̪ˠ] = without, not
gun chiall = without sense, senseless, insane
gun fhiù = worthless, trashy, trivial
gun iarraidh = unwanted, unbidden, unsought
gun mhaille = forthwith
gun sgot = clueless
Manx (Gaelg) gyn = ex, un-, devoid, without
gyn baare = pointless
gyn bun = baseless, bogus, unfounded
gyn currym = carefree, unencumbered
gyn ennym = anonymous, nameless, unnamed
gyn feill = vegetarian
Middle Breton (Brezonec) quen, quin, gen, ken = no more, other
Breton (Brezhoneg) ken [ˈkɛnː] = other, only, no more

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *ḱe (this, here) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Fearful dread

Words for fear, dread and related words in Celtic languages.

anxiety..

Proto-Celtic *oβnus/*obnu- = fear
*exsoβnos = fearless
Gaulish *exsoβnos = fearless
Old Irish (Goídelc) omun [ˈo(ː)ṽun] = fear, dread, afraid
airomun = great fear
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ómun, omun, ómain, óman, úama(i)n, úamun = fear, afraid, apprehensive, fearful, terrible
omnach = afraid, easily frightened, timid, fearful, fear-inspiring
esamain, essamain = fearless, bold, daring
Irish (Gaeilge) uamhan = fear, awe, dread, terror
uamhnach = dreadful, terrifying, fearful, timorous
uamhnacht = dreadfulness, terror, fearfulness, timorousness
uamhnaigh = to frighten, terrify, become afraid, fear, dread
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) uabhann [uəvən̪ˠ] = dread, terror, horror
uabhannach [uəvən̪ˠəx] = terrible, horrible, astounding, shocking
Manx (Gaelg) owan = dread, fright
owanagh = fearful, frightening, frightful
Proto-Brythonic *oβn [oβn] = fear
*exoβn [ɛxˈoβn] = fearless, bold
*exoβneð = fearlessness, boldness, confidence
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ovn, ofuyn, ofyn, ofn = fear, terror, dread, fright, anxiety
ofnadwy = terrible, fearful, frightful
ovynna, ofni, ofnaf = to fear
ofnedic, ofnedig, ovanedig = feared, terrible, dreadful, awful
ovnawc, ofnauc, ofynawc = fearful, afraid, timorous, timid, apprehensive
ofnus = fearful, afraid, timerous, timid
ehon, ehovyn, ehofyn = fearless
Welsh (Cymraeg) ofn [ɔvn/ˈoːvɔn] = fear, terror, dread, fright, anxiety
ofnad = (a state/cause of) fear or anxiety
ofnadwy = terrible, fearful, frightful, dreadul, formidable, awesome
ofnaf, ofni = to fear, be afraid, hold in awem respect, revere; to frighton, terrify, scare
ofnedig = feared, terrible, dreadful, awful
ofnog = fearful, afraid, timorous, timid, apprehensive
ofnus = fearful, afraid, timerous, timid
eofn = fearless, dauntless, brave, courageous
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) own = fear, dread
owna = to fear, dread, be afraid
ownec, ownek = a timid person, a fearful fellow, a coward
Cornish (Kernewek) own = alarm, fear, fright, scare
ownek = afraid, alarmed, cowardly, fearful, scared, terrified,
timid
ownek, owenoges = coward
ownekhe = to intimidate
ownekheans = intimidation
ownus = apprehensive
Middle Breton (Brezonec) aoun, oun, eunë = fear
aounic, aounich, aonic = timid
aounus, eunus = fearful
Breton (Brezhoneg) aon [ɔ̃n] = fear
aonik = timid
aonikaat = to make or become timid
aoniñ = frightened, scared
aonus = fearful
dizaon = fearless
dizaoniñ = to stave off fear
rouzaon =fright

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Indo-European *h₂enǵʰ- (to constrict, tighten). [source].

Proto-Celtic *ɸowtus, *awtos, *owtos = horror, fear
Old Irish (Goídelc) úath [ˈo(ː)ṽun] = fear, horror, terror
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) úath, uath = fear, horror, terror, spectre, phantom, terrible, horrible
úathach, uathach, uathbas = horrible, dreadful
úathmar, uathmar = dreadful, terrifying, horrible, awful
airúath, erúath = dreadfulness, terribleness. terror, dread
fúath, fuath = hatred, abhorrence
fúathmar, fuathmhar = hateful, odious
Irish (Gaeilge) uath [uə(h)] = horrible thing, horror (literary)
uafás = horror, terror, astonishment, vast number or amount
uafásach = horrible, terrible, vast, astonishing
fuath [fˠuə/fˠɪə] = hate, hatred
fuafar = hateful, hideous, odious
fuathaigh = to hate, abandon through dislike
fuathaitheoir = hater
fuathú = to hate, abhorrence, dislike, distaste
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) uabhas [uəh] = dread, terror
uabhasach [uəvəsəx] = horrible, terrible, awful, dire, dreadful, destructive; very, terribly
uabhasaich [uəvəsɪç] = horrity, appal
uabhasachd [uəvəsəxg] = terribleness, awfulness, dreadfulness, horribleness, abominableness
fuath [fuə] = hatred, aversion, antipathy, spectre, the fairies
fuathach [fuəhəx] = abhorrent, detestable, loathsome
fuathasach = dreadful, horrible, wonderful
Manx (Gaelg) feoh = abhorrence, antipathy, aversion, disgust, hatred, loathing, phobia
feohdagh = abhorrent, abominable, execrable, filthy, hateful, nauseous
feohdoil = abhorrent, disgusting, hateful, horrible, horrid, invidious, loathsome
Proto-Brythonic *ʉθ, *ọθ = horror
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) vthir, uthyr, vthyr = fearful, dreadful, awful, terrible
uthraf, uthro = to astonish, amaze
uthraidd, vthraidd = wonderful, wondrous, astonishing
uthred, uthret = horror
vthrawg = fearful, dreadful
uthrol, vthrawl, uthrawl = frightful, dreadful, astonishing
Welsh (Cymraeg) uthr = fearful, terrible, tremendous, mighty, overbearing, cruel, wonderful, wondrous, astonishing, excellent
uthraf, uthro = to astonish, amaze, be astonished, terrify
uthraidd = wonderful, wondrous, astonishing, excellent, frightful, dreadful
uthrog = fearful, dreadful
uthrol = frightful, dreadful, astonishing
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) euth = fright, horror
uth = horror, fright, terror, awfulness
uthec, uthyc = horible, frightful, terrible, awful
uthecter, utheker = horror, frightfulness
Cornish (Kernewek) euth = horror, panic, terror
euthega = to terrify
euthekter = terror
euthvil = monster
euthyk = abominable, awful, frightful, ghastly, horrible
Middle Breton (Brezonec) euz, eah, êuz, heuz = disgust, horror, aversion, fear
euzic, euzyc = horrible, hideous
Breton (Brezhoneg) euzh = fright
euzhadenn, euzhden = monster (person)
euzhvil = monster (animal)
euzhwrac’h = chimera

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Indo-European *pew-. Possibly related to *oβnus (fear) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) ecla = dread, fear
ecal = cautious, fearful, timid
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ecla [ˈeɡlə] = fear, dread
ecal, egal = fearful, timorous
eclach = fearful, causing or inspiring fear, dreaded
ainecla, airecla = great fear, terror
Irish (Gaeilge) eagla [ˈaɡəl̪ˠə/ˈaɡlˠə] = fear
eagal = fearful, timorous (person)
eagalach =fearful, afraid, apprehensive, timid
eagalaí = fearfulness
eagalaigh = to become afraid, be afraid of, fear, frighten
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) eagal [egəl̪ˠ] = fear, fright, timidity
eagalach [egəl̪ˠəx] = fearful, timid, frightful, timorous, frightening, alarming
eagalach feagalach = hairy scary
eagalta [egəl̪ˠdə] = fearful
eagalachd [egəl̪ˠəxg] = terribleness, dreadfulness
eagalan = little coward
Manx (Gaelg) aggle = fear
agglagh = fearful, afraid
agglee = to become afraid, be afraid, fear, appall

Etymology: from Old Irish ess- (ex-, out, dis-), from Proto-Celtic *exs (out), from Proto-Indo-European *h₁eǵʰs (out); and Old Irish gal (ardour, fury, valour), from Proto-Celtic *galā (might, ability), from *galnati (to be able), from Proto-Indo-European *gelH- (to be able, can) [source].

Words meaning to be able to in Brythonic languages, such as gallu in Welsh, come from the same roots [more details], as does the Irish word gal (ardour, valour, fury, vapour, steam) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Wheels

Words for wheel and related words in Celtic languages.

Laxey Wheel

Proto-Celtic *rotos = wheel, chariot
Gaulish *Rotomagos = placename [see below]
Old Irish (Goídelc) roth = disc, sphere, wheel
rothmol = gyration
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) roth, routh = wheel, something circular or wheel-shaped, disc, sphere, circular brooch, wheel brooch, loop, noose
roithled = the act of rotating or twirling
roithlén = wheel
roithreim = the rolling, rushing of wheels
rothán = small wheel
rothmol = wheel of a water mill, gyration, scrimmage
Irish (Gaeilge) roth [ɾˠɔ(h)/ɾˠɞh] = wheel, bicycle
rothach = wheeled, cyclic(al)
rothadóir = wheelwright
rothaí = cyclist
rothaigh = to cycle
rothaíocht = cycling
rothán = small wheel, loop, ring, hank
rothar = bicycle
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) roth [r̪ˠɔh] = wheel, halo, crown (in a mill)
roth-fiaclach = cog
roth-gaoithe = ventilator
roth-uisge = water wheel
roth-mór = millwheel, ferris wheel
rothag = small wheel, small circle
rothaiche = wheel, cyclist
rothair = bicycle, bike, cycle, roller, cylinder
rothaireachd = cycling
rothair-motair = motorbike, motorcycle
rothalan [r̪ˠɔhəl̪ˠan] = person or animal running in circles
Manx (Gaelg) roar = bicycle, bike
roaragh = cyclist
roaraght = cycling
roar-bree = motorcycle
roar-slieau = mountain bike
Proto-Brythonic *rrod = wheel
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) rot, rod, rhôd = wheel
Welsh (Cymraeg) rhod [r̥oːd] = wheel, spinning wheel, waterwheel, cogwheel, (round) shield), sphere, circle, orbit, firmament, heaven, (wheel of) fortune, fate, course, circuit, round, district, world
rhod ddŵr waterwheel
rhod wynt = windmill
rhodellaf, rhoedellu = to whirl, twirl
rhodig = small wheel, rowel (of spur)
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) ros, rôs = circle, wheel
Cornish (Kernewek) ros [ˈɹoːz] = wheel
ros lovan = winch
ros melin = mill wheel
ros parys = spare wheel
ros velin = millwheel
ros-lewya = steering wheel
rosella = to rotate, spin
rosellans = rotation
rosik = castor
roskesya = roller skating
roskis = rollerskates
Middle Breton (Brezonec) rod, rot = wheel, spinning wheel
rot melin, rod milin = millwheel
Breton (Brezhoneg) rod [ˈroːt] = wheel
rod-avel = wind turbine
rod-vilin = millwheel
rodal = to do a cartwheel
rodeg = cycle
rodell = loop
rodellig = small curl, bouclette

Etymology: from PIE *Hret- (to run) [source].

The city of Rouen, the capital of Normandy in northern France, gets its name from the Latin Rōtomagus, which was the chief city of the Veliocasses in Gallia Lugdunensis (where Rouen is now), and was borrowed from Gaulish, from the Proto-Celtic *rotos (wheel) and *magos (field) [source].

Other words from the same roots include words for to run in Celtic languages, the Welsh name Rhys, and rota, rotor and rotate in English [source].

Proto-Celtic *drokos = wheel
Old Irish (Goídelc) droch [drox] = wheel, circlet
drochet [ˈdrox(ʲ)ed] = bridge – from droch (wheel) and sét (path, way)
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) droch = wheel, circlet
drochet, drochat, droget = bridge, causeway
Irish (Gaeilge) droichead = bridge
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) droch [drɔx] = coach wheel (obselete)
drochaid = bridge
Manx (Gaelg) droghad = bridge, arch, gantry

Etymology: from PIE *dʰregʰ- (to run, drag, pull) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include drag, draw (to pull, drag) and retract in English, and դուրգ (durg – potter’s wheel) in Armenian [source].

Proto-Celtic *olēnā = wheel
Old Welsh olun, olin = wheel, circular, to rotate
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) olwyn, olvyn, ōlwyn = wheel
olwynnyawc, olŵynog, olwŷnog = wheeled, turning, revolving
Welsh (Cymraeg) olwyn [ˈɔlʊɨ̯n/ˈoːlʊi̯n] = wheel, shaft
olwyn gocos cog wheel
olwyn ddŵr = waterwheel
olwyn lywio = streering wheel
olwyndro = cartwheel
olwyndroi = to cartwheel, spin
olwyn(i)af, olwyn(i)o = to wheel, turn, revolve, roll
olwyn(i)og = wheeled, turning, revolving
olwynol = wheel-shaped, circular, revolving
olwynwr = wheelwright, cyclist

Etymology: from Proto-Celtic *Heh₃l- (to bow, bend, elbow) [source].

Words from elbow in Celtic languages come from the same PIE root via the Proto-Celtic *olīnā (elbow, angle) [more details], as do the English words elbow and ulna (one of the bones in the forearm, a.k.a. elbow bone) [source].

Irish (Gaeilge) cuidhil [kiːlʲ/kiəlʲ] = spinning wheel (in Antrim)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cuidheall [kujəl̪ˠ] = wheel, coil
cuidheall-shnìomha = spinning wheel
cuibheall-iteachain = bobbin wheel
saor-chuidhleachan = wheelwright
Manx (Gaelg) queeyl(l) = wheel
queeyl chairt = cartwheel
queeylit = wheeled
queeyllagh = cartwheel, rotary, wheeled, wheeling
queelylley = rolling, wheeling whirling

Etymology: from Scots quhe(i)l (wheel), from Middle English whel (wheel), etc [source].

Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cuibhle [kuilə] = wheel, coil
cathair-cuibhle = wheelchair
cuibhle-shnìomha = ship’s wheel, steering wheel
cuibhlearachd = wheeling, rolling, coiling
cuibhle = millwheel, ferris wheel
cuibhleas = wheelhouse
cuibhleag = small coil, small eddy
Welsh (Cymraeg) whil, wil = wheel
w(h)ilaf, w(h)ilo = to wheel, roll
w(h)ilber = wheelbarrow
w(h)ilberaid = wheelbarrowful
w(h)ilber(i)o = to carry in a wheelbarrow
whilbws = wheelhouse
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) wheyl, wheal, whél = work, wheel

Etymology: from English wheel, from Middle English whel (wheel), from Old English hwēol (wheel), from Proto-Germanic *hweulō (wheels), from PIE *kʷékʷlom (wheel) from *kʷel- (to turn) [source].

According to MacBain’s An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language, the Gaelic cuibhle was borrowed from English [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Hard

Words for hard and related things in Celtic languages.

Hard

Proto-Celtic *kaletos = hard, strong, cruel
Gaulish Caleti (ethnonym)
Old Irish (Goídelc) calad = hard, stingy, hardship
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) calad, calath, caladh = hard, stingy
Irish (Gaeilge) caladh [ˈkɑl̪ˠə/ˈkalˠə/ˈkalˠu] = hard
Middle Welsh (Kymreac) caled, kalet, calett = hard, rough, cruel
caledi, kaledi = hardness, hardship, adversity
kaledwch, cledwch = hardness, severity, cruelty, callousness
Welsh (Cymraeg) caled = hard, rough, cruel, unfeeling, sore, severe, strict, thrifty, obstinate, abstruse, difficult, hardy, tough
caledaf, caledu, caledo, cledo = to harden, dry, grow unfeeling or stubborn
calededd = hardness, severity
caleden = callus
caledfyd = hardship, distress, adversity
caled-galon = hard-hearted, callous
caledi = hardness, hardship, adversity
caledwch = hardness, severity, cruelty, callousness
caledwedd = (computer) hardware
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) cales, calas, calys = hard, difficult
caletter, calatter = hardness, difficulty
calessa, calassa = hardest
Cornish (Kernewek) kales = difficult, hard, severe, tough
kalesweyth = hardware
kaletter = difficulty, hardness
penn kales = obstinate, stubborn
Middle Breton (Brezonec) calet, kalet = hard, deep (sleep)
caletaat, kaletaat = to harden, toughen up
caleded = hardness, toughness
caleder, calletter, caleder = hardness, toughness, difficulty
Breton (Brezhoneg) kalet = hard, raw, crude
kaleted = hardness, toughness
kaleter = endurance
kaledenn = hard, callus

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *ḱlH-eto- (cold), related to *kal- (hard) [source]. Words from the same roots include callus and callous in English, калити [kǎːliti] (to harden, temper) in Serbian, and callo (callus, corn, tripe) in Spanish [source].

Proto-Celtic *kroudis/*krowdi- = rude
Old Irish (Goídelc) crúaid = hard, harsh, stern
crúadach = cruel, harsh
crúaide = hardness
crúadaigid = to harden, stiffen
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) crúaid, cruaidh = hard(y), harsh, stern, strict
crúadach, cruadach = hard, cruel, harsh
crúadagid, cruadhaigh = hardens, stiffens
crúadáil, cruadhál = hardship, cruelty
crúadóc, crúadhóg = hardship, strait, difficulty
crúaide, cruaide = hardness, harshness
Irish (Gaeilge) crua [kɾˠuə/kɾˠuəɟ/kɾˠuəj] = hard, firm, difficult, severe
cruach [kɾˠuəx / kɾˠɔx] = steel
cruachan = hardening
cruachás = predicament, difficulty, distress
cruachásach = in a difficulty, distressed
cruacht = hardness, hardiness, stinginess
cruara = hardware
cruas = hardness, stinginess
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cruaidh [kruəj] = steel; stone anchor; hard, rocky ground
cruaidh-chàs = danger, peril, difficulty, hardship
cruaidh-fhortan = misfortune
cruaidhead [kruəjəd] = degree of hardness
cruaidheadh [kruəjəɣ] = solidifying, hardening, drying
Manx (Gaelg) creoi = adamant, difficult, hardy, heartless, hard, solid, tough, bitter (frost), blistering (language)
creoghey = to harden, forbear, set against
creoighey = to harden, stiffen; hardening
creoidys = hardihood, hardness
creoighys = callosity, hardness, obduracy

Etymology: from Proto-Celtic *krū- (blood), from Proto-Indo-European *krewh₂- (blood outside the body) [source]. Words from the same roots include crude, cruel and raw in English [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Beaks and Snouts

Words for beak, snout and related things in Celtic languages.

Waiting for chip's

Proto-Celtic *gobbos = muzzle, snout, beak
Gaulish *gobbos [ˈɡob.bos] = mouth
Old Irish (Goídelc) gop = beak, snout, muzzle
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gop, guib, guip = muzzle, snout, beak, point/head of a spear, thin-mouthed, sharp-pointed
Irish (Gaeilge) gob [ɡɔbˠ/ɡɞbˠ/ɡʌbˠ] = beak, bill, tip, point, projection
gobach = beaked, long-billed, sharp (expression), pointed, lipped (jug)
gobachán = sharp-featured person, beak-nosed person, sharp-tongued person, inquisitive/interfering person, chatterer, gossip
gobadh = protrusion, shooting, springing, sprouting
gobaí = bird with a long beak, person with pointed features
gobaireacht = picking, pecking, chattering, chatter, gossip
gobán = (small) tip, point, gag, dummy
goblach = beakful, mouthful, morsel, lump, chunk
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gob [gob] = beak, bill, gob, pointed/sharp end, corner, spit (of land), point (of a fishing hook)
gobachadh = pecking, rising (wind), poking through
gobad [gobag] = talkative female, little bill, cabin hook
goban = small mouth, small beak
gobaire = chatterbox, chattterer, tell-tale
gobach [gobəx] = beaked, snouty, cheeky, chatty
Manx (Gaelg) gob = apex, headland, hook, jet, jut, nose(piece), point, prominence, promontory, beak, nib, spout, mouth, muzzle, bow (of ship)
gobbagh = beaked, billed, nibbed, prominent, salient
gob-rollian = talkative person

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ǵebʰ- (jaw, mouth). Words from the same Proto-Celtic root include gober (to swallow hole) and gobelet (goblet, cup, beaker) in French, and gob (a slang word for mouth) and goblet in English, [source].

Proto-Celtic *bekkos = beak, snout
Gaulish *bekkos = beak, snout
Proto-Brythonic *bek = beak, snout
Middle Breton (Brezonec) becq, beeg, bêg, beg = mouth, beak, snout, point, cape, summit
Breton (Brezhoneg) beg = beak, mouth, point, mouthpiece, embouchure
beg-douar = point
beg-hir = dolphin

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *bak- (peg, club) [source].

Words from the same roots, via the Gaulish *bekkos and the Latin beccus (beak, bill), include bec (beak, bill, mouth) in French, beco (beak, mouthpiece, burner) in Italian, bico (beak, bill, snout, rostrum) in Portuguese, pico (beak, sharp point, pickaxe, peak, spout) in Portuguese, bek (beak, snout, mouth) in Dutch, and beak in English [source].

Proto-Celtic *gulbā, *gulbīnos = beak, bill
Gaulish *gulbiā = beak, bill
Old Irish (Goídelc) gulban, gulpan = bird’s beak
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gulba = beak, mouth, jaw
gulban = beak, sting
gulbanda = beaked, piercing
gulbnech = beaked, sharp-beaked
gulbnén = small beak
gulbnide = biting
gulbniugad nibbing, biting
Irish (Gaeilge) gulba = beak, bill, tip, point, projection
guilbneach = (sharp-)beaked, curlew
guilbnéan = little beak
guilbnigh = to peck
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gulb [gul̪ˠub] = beak, nose
gulban [gul̪ˠuban] = beak, nose
guilbneach [gulubnəx] = curlew
Proto-Brythonic *gulbino- = beak, snout
Old Welsh (Kembraec) gilb = sharp point, beak, bill, snout
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gelef, gylyf = sharp point, beak, bill, snout
gilbin, gyluin, gylfin = bird’s beak, snout
gylfinir, gelvinir, gylfinhir = curlew
Welsh (Cymraeg) gylf, glyfyf = sharp point, sharp-pointed instrument, knife, bird’s beak, bird’s bill, snout, nose, grimace
gylfin = bird’s beak, bill, snout, sharp-pointed nose, mouth, lip
gylfinaid = beakful, mouthful
gylfinir = curlew
gylfinog = beaked, rostrated, wild daffodil, narcissus
Old Cornish geluin = beak, bill
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) gelvin = beak, bill
gelvinac, gylvinac = curlew
Cornish (Kernewek) gelvin = beak, bill
gelvinek = curlew
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwlib, glawlib = curlew, whimbrel (?)

Etymology: probably of non-Proto-Indo-European origin. Words from the same root, via Gaulish *gulbiā and the Latin gulbia (piercer, chisel), gulbia (gouge) in Galician, gubia (gouge) in Spanish, gorbia (ferrule) in Italian, and gouge in English and French [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Hundred

Words for a hundred and related things in Celtic languages:

hundred

Proto-Celtic *kantom = hundred
*kantometos = hundredth
Gaulish *canta = hundred
Old Irish (Goídelc) cét [kʲeːd] = hundred, a hundred people/warriors, troops, battalions
cétmad [ˈkʲeːdṽað] = hundredth
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ced, céit, cét = hundred, a hundred people/warriors, troops, battalions
cétach, cetach = hundredfold, possossing a hundred
cétmad = hundredth
Irish (Gaeilge) céad [ciːa̯d̪ˠ/ceːd̪ˠ] = hundred, century, hundredweight, great, long
céadach = hundredfold, great, immense
céadú = hundredth
céadchosach = centipede
céad míle fáilte = a hundred thousand welcomes
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ceud [kʲiəd] = hundred
ceudamh [kʲiadəv] (100ᵐʰ) = hundredth 100ᵗʰ)
ceudad [kʲiədəd] = percent, percentage
ceud mìle fàilte = a hundred thousand welcomes
ceudameatair = centimetre
ceudamhail [kʲiədəval] = percentile
ceud-chasach = centipede
ceudach [kʲiədəx] = hundredfold
Manx (Gaelg) keead [kiːəd] = hundred, century
keeadoo = hundredth
keead blein = centenary
keead filley = hundredfold
keead liauyr/mooar = long hundred
keead-choshagh = centipede
Proto-Brythonic *kant [kant] = hundred
Old Welsh cant = hundred
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cant, can = hundred
canvet, canuet, kannvet, canved = hundredth
cantref, cantrew, cantreuyt = hundred, cantred, province, district
Welsh (Cymraeg) cant, can [kant/kan] = hundred, a host, hundredweight, percentage; century
canfed (100fed) = hundredth (100th), centesimal, century
canrif = century
cantref = hundred, cantred, province, district
cantro = a hundred times, many times, twisted many times
cantroed = centipede, a hundred feet
cantwll = a hundred holes, riddled with holes
hanner cant = fifty
cant a mil = a hundred and one, a large number
can diolch = many thanks
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) cans = hundred
canquyth, canswyth = a hundred times
Cornish (Kernewek) kans = hundred
kansves = hundredth
kansbledhen = century
kanskradh = centigrade
kanskweyth = a hundred times
kansplek = hundredfold
kansran = percent(age)
Old Breton cant = hundred
Middle Breton (Brezonec) cant, cantt, can, chant = hundred, 100 pounds (lb)
canuet, cantvet, cantved = hundredth
cantved = century
candad, cantad = around hundred
cant(-)doubl = centuple
cantenier, candener, candenyer = centurion
Breton (Brezhoneg) kant [kãn(t)] = hundred
kantvet [ˈkãn.vet] = hundredth
kantved [ˈkãn.vet] = century
kantad [ˈkãn.tat] = around hundred

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *ḱm̥tóm (hundred) [source].

Words from the same roots include hundred, century, centigrade, hecatontome (a very large number of books) and hecatologue (a code of 100 rules) in English, and words related to hundred in other Indo-European languages [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Thirty

Words for thirty and related things in Celtic languages.

thirty

Proto-Celtic *trīkontes = thirty
Gaulish tricontis = thirty
Old Irish (Goídelc) trícha [ˈtʲrʲiːxo] = thirty
tríchatmad = thirtieth
tríchtaige = thirty day period
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) trícha, triúcha, tricha, triocha, tricho = thirty
tríchatmad, trichatmad, trichadmadh = thirtieth
tríchtaige, trichtaigi = period of 30 days/years, etc
tríchtach, tríteach = thirty-fold, consisting of 30
trícha cét = a military force, political or terrirtorial unit; of force of fighting men, cantred, barony (lit. ‘300’)
Irish (Gaeilge) tríocha = thirty
tríochadú = thirtieth
na tríochaidí = the thirties
tríocha céad = large territorial division, barony
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) trichead [triçəd] = thirty
tritheadamh (30ᵐʰ) = thirtieth (30ᵗʰ)
na tritheadan = the thirties
Manx (Gaelg) treead = thirty
Proto-Brythonic *trigont = thirty
Old Breton tricont, trigont = thirty
Middle Breton (Brezonec) tregont = thirty
tregontad = about thirty
tregontet, tregontvedenn, tregontvet = thirtieth
tregontkementiñ, tregontvedenniñ = to multiply by thirty
tregontvloaziad = a period of 30 years
Breton (Brezhoneg) tregont [ˈtreːɡɔ̃n(t)] = thirty
tregontved = thirtieth
tregontvedenn = thirtieth part
tragontad = around thirty

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *tridḱómt (thirty) from *tri- (three) and *déḱm̥ (ten) [source].

Words from the same roots include thirty in English, tridhjetë (thirty) in Albanian, երեսուն [jɛɾɛˈsun] (thirty) in Armenian, trenta (thirty) in Italian and trente (thirty) in French, and words for thirty in other Indo-European languages [source].

Thirty is also trideg (three-ten) in Welsh in the decimal version of the numbers. For other words for thirty, see the post about words for ten, as thirty is 10 on 20 in the vigesimal system.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic