In this episode we find out what links the words hog and socket with words for pig, ploughshare and related things in Celtic languages.
The Proto-Celtic word sukkos means a pig (snout) or ploughshare, presumably because ploughshares looked like pig’s snouts. It comes from the Proto-Indo-European *súH-s (pig, hog, swine) [source]
Descendents in the modern Celtic languages include:
- soc [sˠɔk] = sow in Irish.
- soc [sɔxg] = beak, snout, socket, ploughshare, or a short, chubby person in Scottish Gaelic
- sock = bow, nose, snout, ploughshare, jet or nozzle in Manx
- hwch [huːχ] = sow, pig, swine, or a dirty creature in Welsh
- hogh = hog, pig or swine in Cornish
- houc’h = sow in Breton
Words from the same Proto-Celtic root in other languages include socket and possibly hog in English, and soc (ploughshare) in French.
The word socket comes from the Middle English soket, from the Anglo-Norman soket (spearhead), from the Old French soc (ploughshare), from the Vulgar Latin *soccus, from the Proto-Celtic *sokkos, probably via Gaulish [source].
The word hog comes from the Middle English hog(ge) (pig, swine, pig meat, hogget [young sheep]), from the Old English hogg (hog), either the Old Norse hǫggva (to hew), or from the Proto-Brythonic *hux (pig) [source].
The English word hoggan (a pork pasty), which is used mainly in Cornwall, probably comes from the Old Cornish hoggan/hogen) (pork pasty, pie), from hoch (pig), from the Proto-Brythonic *hux (pig). The word oggy/oggie (pasty), which is used in Devon and Cornwall, and also in Wales, comes from the same roots [source].
Welsh oggies are larger than Cornish pasties and contain lamb, potatoes and leeks. Here’s a recipe.
Incidentally, the Welsh words hogyn (boy) and hogen (girl), which are used mainly in North Wales, come from hòg (young/little boy, youth, lad, fellow), from the English hogg (young sheep or hogget), from the Middle English hogget (a boar/sheep of the second year), from Anglo-Norman hog(g)et (young boar) and an Anglo-Latin hogettus [source].
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