Honey Wine

Words for mead, wine and related things in Celtic languages.


Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *medu = mead, wine, alcoholic drink
*medwos = drunk
Celtiberian Mezu-kenos = personal name “mead-born”
Gaulish medu = mead
Medu-genos = personal name “mead-born”
Primitive Irish medu = mead
Primitive Irish *ᚋᚓᚇᚒ (*medu) = mead
ᚋᚓᚇᚇᚑᚌᚓᚅᚔ (meddogeni) = personal name “mead-born”
ᚋᚓᚇᚃᚃᚔ (medvvi) = personal name “meady”
Old Irish (Goídelc) mid [mʲið] = mead
Midgen = personal name “mead-born”
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) mid, midh = mead
medb = strong, intoxicating (liquor)
Irish (Gaeilge) meá [mʲæh / mʲa(h)] = mead
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) meadh [mjɤɣ] = mead
meadhach = fuddled with mead, like mead, abounding in mead
Manx (Gaelg) meddagh = mead-maker
Proto-Brythonic *með [mɛːð] = mead
Old Welsh (Kembraec) med = mead
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) met, med = mead
meddawt, meddavt, meddwdod = drunkenness, inebriation, intoxication
meddfaeth, metveith, meduaeth, medweith = nourished on mead, having feastedon mead, mead-feast
medgell, meddgell = mead-cellar, drink-cellar
met kirn, medgyrn, metgyrn, meddgyrn = mead-horn, drinking-horn
metv, medw, meddw = drunk
medwyt, medwi, meddwi [ˈmɛðwi] = to get drunk
Welsh (Cymraeg) medd [meːð] = mead
meddaidd = like mead, sweet
medd-dod, meddwdod = drunkenness, inebriation, intoxication
meddfaeth = luxurious, soft, gentle, delicate, pampered, effeminate
meddw [ˈmɛðu] = drunk, intoxicated, fuddled, tipsy
meddwi [ˈmɛðwi] = to be(come) drunk or tipsy, to be intoxicated or inebriated, to make drunky
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) medh, medu, meddou = mead
medhas = drunkenness, intoxication
medho = drunken, intoxicated
Cornish (Kernewek) medh = mead, hydromel
medhow = drunk, intoxicated
medhwenep = drunkenness, intoxication
medhwi = to intoxicate, make drunk
medhwynsi = drunkenness
Old Breton (Brethonoc) medot = mead
Middle Breton (Brezonec) mez = mead
Breton (Brezhoneg) mez [meː(s)] = mead
mezv [mɛ(z)w] = drunk, wobbly (furniture)
mezventi = alcoholism
mezvier = drunkard
mezvierezh = drunkenness
mezviñ [ˈmɛ(z)vĩ] = to get drunk
mezvus [ˈmɛ(z)vys] = intoxicating, heady

Etymology: from PIE *médʰu (honey, honey wine, mead), possibly related to Proto-Semitic *mataḳ- (sweet) [source].

Words from the same roots include mead in English, mead in English, mjöður (mead) in Icelandic, медведь [mʲɪdˈvʲetʲ] (bear, large clumsy person, lit. “honey eater”) in Russian, mesi (nectar) in Finnish, and possibly (mì / mitsu – honey) in Chinese and Japanese and (mil – beeswax, honey) in Korean [source].

The Irish name Méabh (Maeve) also comes from the same roots [source].

Proto-Celtic *wīnom = wine
Leptonic 𐌖𐌉𐌍𐌏𐌌 (uinom) = wine
Old Irish (Goídelc) fín = wine
fín acat = vinegar
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fín = wine
fínán = cheap wine
fínda = pertaining to wine
fínmar = having abundance of wine
fíntan = vineyard
Irish (Gaeilge) fíon [fʲiːn̪ˠ] = wine
fíonchaor = grape
fíoncheannaí = wine merchant, vintner
fíonda = vinous, pertaining to wine
fíondaite = wine-coloured
fíonghort [ˈfʲiːnˠˌɣɔɾˠtˠ] = vineyard
fíonmhar = rich in wine, vinous
fíonsaothrú = viticulture
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fìon [fiən] = wine
fìon-chaor [fiən xɯːr] = grape
fìon-chrann = grapevine
fìon-fhoghar = wine harvest, vintage
fìon-geur = vinegar
fìon-lios = vineyard
fìonadair = wine-maker
Manx (Gaelg) feeyn = wine
feeyney = of wine, vinous
feeyneyder = wine-maker, vintner
feeyneydys = viticulture
berrish-feeyney = grape
feeyn geayr = vinegar
fouyr feeyney = vintage
garey feeyney = vineyard
Proto-Brythonic *gwin = wine
Old Welsh (Kembraec) guin = wine
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gvin, guin, gwin = wine
gwinblas = mansion where wine is dispensed in abundance
gwindeveirn = wine-tavern
gwindy, gwin-dŷ = wine-house, wine-tavern, wine-cellar, banqueting house
guinegyr, gwinegyr = vinegar
guinlann, gwinllan(n) = vineyard, vine
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwin [ɡwiːn] = wine, fermented liquor made from the juice of fruits (apples, elderberries, rhubarb, gooseberries, etc), like wine, pleasant, sweet, fine, excellent
gwinbren = vine
gwindy = wine-house, wine-tavern, wine-cellar, banqueting house
gwinegr = vinegar
gwinllan = vineyard, vine, copse, grove, wood, plantation
gwinwr, gwinydd = vintner, vine-grower, vine-dresser, vineyard owner
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) gwin, guin = wine
gwinbren, guinbren = vine
Cornish (Kernewek) gwin [ɡwiːn] = wine
gwinbren = vine
gwinlan = vineyard
gwinyer = winemaker
Old Breton (Brethonoc) guin = wine
guiniin = vines
Middle Breton (Brezonec) guin, guyn = wine
guiny, guyni = vines
guynieyer = vineyard
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwin [ɡwĩːn / ɡɥĩːn] = wine
gwinegr [ɡwĩnˈɛk(r)] = vinegar
gwini [ˈɡɥĩːni] = vines
gwinieg [ɡɥĩ.ˈniː.ɛk] = vineyard
gwinier [ɡwĩ.ˈniː.ɛr / ɡɥĩ.ˈniː.ɛr] = winemaker
gwinioniezh [ɡɥĩ.nɔ̃ˈniː.ɛs] = oenology

Etymology: from Latin vīnum (wine, grapes, grapevine), from Proto-Italic *wīnom (wine), from Proto-Indo-European *wóyh₁nom (wine, vine). The Welsh and Cornish words come from Latin via Proto-Celtic, the Breton and Goidelic words were borrowed direct from Latin, and the Leptonic word comes direct from Proto-Italic [source].

Words from the same roots include wine, vine, vinegar and oenology (the scientific study of wines and winemaking) in English, wijn (wine) in Dutch, vino (wine) in Italian, wino (wine) in Polish, and possibly ወይን (wäyn – grape) in Amharic [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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