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Varang Kshiti alphabet    Varang Kshiti


The Varang Kshiti or Warang Chiti alphabet was invented by community leader Lako Bodra as an alternative to the writing systems devised by Christian missionaries. He claims that the alphabet was invented in the 13th century by Dhawan Turi, and that it was rediscovered in a shamanistic vision and modernised by Bodra.

It is used in primary and adult education and in various publications. About 2% of people who speak Ho are literate in their language.

Notable features

Used to write

Ho, a Munda language with over a million speakers mainly in the Indian states of Jharkhand, Orissa, and West Bengal, and also in Bangladesh. Ho is closely related to Mundari and Santali, and is know as ho kaji, ho: basa, or ho haram by it's speakers.

Varang Kshiti alphabet


Varang Kshiti consonants


Varang Kshiti vowels


Varang Kshiti numerals


Information about the Varang Kshiti / Warang Chiti alphabet and the Ho language

Information about the Munda languages

Munda languages

Gadaba, Ho, Kurukh, Mundari, Santali, Sora

Syllabic alphabets / abugidas