The Varang Kshiti or Warang Chiti alphabet was invented by community leader Lako
Bodra as an alternative to the writing systems devised by Christian
missionaries. He claims that the alphabet was invented in the 13th century
by Dhawan Turi, and that it was rediscovered in a shamanistic vision
and modernised by Bodra.
It is used in primary and adult education and in various publications.
About 2% of people who speak Ho are literate in their language.
Type of writing system: syllabic alphabet / abugida
Direction of writing: left to right in horizontal lines.
Each consonant has an inherent vowel, usually /a/ but sometimes
/o/ or /e/.
Used to write
Ho, a Munda language with over a million speakers
mainly in the Indian states of Jharkhand, Orissa, and West Bengal,
and also in Bangladesh. Ho is closely related to Mundari and Santali,
and is know as ho kaji, ho: basa, or ho haram
by it's speakers.