Roads

Words for roads in Celtic languages.

Bilingual sign

Proto-Celtic *bow-itros = road (“cow path”)
Old Irish (Goídelc) bóthar = road, way, manner, stream
Irish (Gaeilge) bóthar [ˈbˠoːhəɾˠ / ˈbˠoːɾˠ / ˈbˠɔhəɾˠ] = road, way, manner
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bòthar [boː.ər] = alley, lane, road, street
Manx (Gaelg) bayr = lane, road, roadway, pad, drive, avenue
Welsh (Cymraeg) beidr = lane, track
Cornish (Kernewek) bownder [‘bɔʊndɛr / ‘bɔʊndɐr] = lane

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Old Irish (Goídelc) rót [r͈oːd] = road, highway
Irish (Gaeilge) ród [ɾˠoːd̪ˠ / ɾˠɔːd̪ˠ] = road, roadstead, route, anchorage, mooring
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) rathad [r̪ˠa.ad] = road, way, route, path, track
Manx (Gaelg) raad [reːd̪ / raːd̪] = road, track, route, direction, roadway, trail, way; vent, vent-hole
Welsh (Cymraeg) rhawd = course, way, path, journey, career, period
Breton (Brezhoneg) roud = route, trace, itinerary

Etymology: probably from the Old English rad (journey, ride
raid, expedition) [source], from the Proto-Germanic *raidō (ride, journey), from the Proto-Indo-European *reydʰ- (ride), which is also the root of the English words road and raid [source].

Proto-Brythonic forð [forð] = road, path, way, mannerh
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ford, fort, forth = road, way, street, path
Welsh (Cymraeg) ffordd = road, way, street, path, passage, course, route, journey
Old Cornish ford = way, road, manner
Cornish (Kernewek) fordh [fɔrð] = way, road, manner

Etymology: from the Old English ford (ford) [source], from the Proto-West Germanic *furdu (ford), from Proto-Germanic *furduz (ford), from the Proto-Indo-European *pr̥téw-/*pértus (crossing) [source]. Words for ford in the Brythonic languages come from the same PIE root.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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