Words for islands and related things in Celtic languages.

South Stack / Ynys Lawd

Proto-Celtic *enistī = island
Old Irish (Goídelc) inis = island
Irish (Gaeilge) inis [ˈɪnʲɪʃ] = island
leithinis = peninsula
Inse Ghall = the Hebrides
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) innis [ĩːʃ] = haugh; grazing (land); island (archaic)
innis-bhó = cattle pasture
Innis Fàil = Ireland (poetic)
Innis nan Òg = Isle of the Young/Youth, Tìr nan Òg (in mythology)
leth-innis = peninsula
Manx (Gaelg) innis, innys, insh = island, iselet
insheen = iselet
innysagh = insular
innysaght = insularity
mooirinshyn = archipelago
lieh-innys = peninsula
Proto-Brythonic *ɨnɨs [ɨˈnˑɨs] = island
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ynys, enys, inys = island
enys Auallach = the island of Avalon
ynys y kedeirn / Enys Wen = Island of Britain
Welsh (Cymraeg) ynys [ˈənɨ̞s/ˈənɪs] = island, isle; (the) Western Isles; kingdom, realm, land, province. region, area, river-meadow
Ynys Afallach/Afallon = the island of Avalon
Ynys y Cedryn / yr Ynys Wen = Island of Britain (“Island of the Mighty Ones” / “the White Island”)
ynys draffig = traffic island
ynysaf, ynysu = to isolate, insulate
ynysedig = isolated, insulated
ynysfor = archipelago
ynysiad = isolation, insulation
ynysig = islet, small island
ynysog = insular, insulated, archipelagic
ynyswr = islander
Cornish (Kernewek) enys = island
enesek = archipelago
enesik = islet
enesega = to insulate
enyshe = to isolate
enyshes = isolated
Old Breton inis = island
Middle Breton enes = island
Breton (Brezhoneg) enez [ˈẽː.nes] = island
enezig / enezennig = small island, islet; block (of buildings), patch (of ground)
enezeg = archipelago
enezennet = enclosed

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₁eni-sth₂-ih₂ (“that which stands in (the water)”) from *(h₁)en- (in) and *steh₂- (stand) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) ailén [ˈalʲeːn] = island
Irish (Gaeilge) oileán [ˈɪnʲɪʃ] = island; isolated place
oileán sráide/tráchta = street-refuge, traffic island
An tOileán Úr = the New World, America
oileánach = islander, abounding in islands, insular
oileánachas = insularism, insularity
oileánrach = group of islands, archipelago
glasoileán = peninsula; island accessible by bridge or on foot at low tide
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) eilean [elan] = isle, island
eilean anabaich = promontory
eilean-mara / eilean-tràghaidh = tidal island
frith-eilean = small island, islet
leth-eilean = peninsula
ros-eilean = wooded/forested island
Eilean a’ Cheò = The Isle of Skye (“Isle of Mist” – poetic)
Eilean an Fhraoich = The Isle of Lewis (“Isle of Heather” poetic)
Comhairle nan Eilean = The Council of the Isles, The Western Isles Council
Manx (Gaelg) ellan = isle, island
ellanagh = islander; insular
ellanaght / ellanys = insularity
ellaneen = islet
ellanragh = archipelago
Ellan Vannin = Isle of Man

Etymology: from the Old Irish ail (boulder, rock) and -én (diminutive suffix) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary,, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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