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Ladino (djudeo-espanyol / ג'ודיאו-איספאנייול)

Ladino is a language derived from medieval Spanish, with influences from such languages as Aragonese, Astur-Leonese, Catalan, Galician-Portuguese, and Mozarabic. Ladino also has vocabulary from Ottoman Turkish, Hebrew, Aramaic and Arabic, French, Italian, Greek, Bulgarian and Serbo-Croatian. It is variously known as Judaeo-Spanish, Espanyol (Español), Judío, Judesmo, Sefardí and Haketia/Haquetía, Spanyolit or Ladino (לאדינו).

Ladino is spoken by the descendants of the Sefardim or Sephardim, Jews who were expelled from Spain in 1492. There are currently about 100,000 speakers of Ladino in Israel, 8,000 in Turkey, 1,000 in Greece, and several hundred in the USA.

Ladino was historically written with the Hebrew script, usually with the Rashi or Solitreo versions of that script, but is more commonly written with the Latin alphabet these days.

Ladino scripts

This chart shows the Rashi, Square and Solitreo versions of the Hebrew script for Ladino, with the letter names in the Rashi and Latin scripts, Latin transliterations and IPA transcriptions.

Hebrew scripts for Ladino

Notes

Vowels are indicated in all words, except those borrowed from Hebrew. Alef and sometimes alef he is used for ah; yod for eh or ee; and vav for o or oo; alef and yod for the Spanish sound ey. Additionally, the vowels yod and vav are never shown alone and are preceded by alef in the word i ('and') - alef yod - and in the word o ('or') - alef vav.

Latin script for Ladino

This is the Latin orthography for Ladino used and promoted by Aki Yerushalayim, a Ladino magazine published in Israel by the Sefarad Association and the Autoridad Nasionala del Ladino.

Latin script for Ladino

Notes

Sample text in Ladino (Hebrew alphabet)

קאדח בנאדם אי בנאדם נאסי פוררו אי איגואו אין דינייידאד אין דיריג׳וס. טודוס סון בעלה ראזון אי קונסיינסיה אי דיב׳ין קומפורטארסין לוס אונוס ב׳ירסו לוס אוטרוס קון פראטירנידאד.

Sample text in Ladino (Latin alphabet)

Kada benadam i benadam nase forro i igual en dinyidad i en derechos. Todos son baale razon i konsiensia i deven komportarsen los unos verso los otros kon fraternidad.

Information about the Ladino alphabets and the sample texts were compiled by Michael Peter Füstumum

Translation

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
(Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)

Information about Ladino | Tower of Babel in Ladino

Links

Information about Ladino / Judaeo-Spanish
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judaeo-Spanish
http://www.sephardicstudies.org/quickladino.html
http://spanish.about.com/cs/historyofspanish/f/ladino.htm
http://inicia.es/de/ladino/
http://www.solitreo.com/ladinotype/chart.php

Ladinokomunita - Ladino Preservation Council
http://www.sephardicstudies.org/komunita.html

Jewish Language Research Website
http://www.jewish-languages.org

Free Hebrew fonts
http://www.wazu.jp/gallery/Fonts_Hebrew.html
http://opensiddur.org/tools/fonts/
http://oketz.com/fonts/
http://www.daniella.co.il/daniella/bloog/font/Hebrew-font-page1.htm
http://www.mendelsson.co.il/yakov/myfonts.htm

Romance languages

Aragonese, Aranese, Aromanian, Asturian, Catalan, Corsican, Emilian-Romagnol, Extremaduran, Fala, Franco-Provençal, French, Friulian, Galician, Gallo, Genoese, Guernésiais, Italian, Jèrriais, Ladino, Ladin, Latin, Ligurian, Lombard, Megleno-Romanian, Mirandese, Moldovan, Occitan, Picard, Piedmontese, Portuguese, Romanian, Romansh, Sardinian, Sicilian, Spanish, Venetian, Walloon

Languages written with the Hebrew script

Aramaic, Bukhori, Hebrew, Jewish Neo-Aramaic, Judeo-Arabic, Juhuri, Karaim, Ladino, Yiddish