Ladino (djudeo-espanyol / ג'ודיאו-איספאנייול)
Ladino is a language derived from medieval Spanish, with influences
from such languages as Aragonese, Astur-Leonese, Catalan, Galician-Portuguese,
and Mozarabic. Ladino also has vocabulary from Ottoman Turkish, Hebrew,
Aramaic and Arabic, French, Italian, Greek, Bulgarian and Serbo-Croatian.
It is variously known as Judaeo-Spanish, Espanyol (Español), Judío, Judesmo, Sefardí and
Haketia/Haquetía, Spanyolit or Ladino (לאדינו).
Ladino is spoken by the descendants of the Sefardim or Sephardim, Jews
who were expelled from Spain in 1492. There are currently about 100,000
speakers of Ladino in Israel, 8,000 in Turkey, 1,000 in Greece, and several
hundred in the USA.
Ladino was historically written with the Hebrew script, usually with
the Rashi or Solitreo versions of that script, but is more commonly
written with the Latin alphabet these days.
Hebrew script for Ladino
Vowels are indicated in all words, except those borrowed from Hebrew.
Aleph and sometimes aleph heh is used ah; yod for eh or ee; and vav for
o or oo; aleph and yod for the spanish sound ey. Additionally, the vowels
yod and vav are never shown alone and are preceded by aleph in the word
i ('and') - aleph yod - and in the word o ('or') - aleph vav.
Latin script for Ladino
This is the Latin orthography for Ladino used and promoted by
Aki Yerushalayim, a Ladino magazine published in Israel
by the Sefarad Association and the Autoridad Nasionala del Ladino.
- A dot is written between s and h (s·h) to represent [sx], to avoid confusion with [ʃ]. For example: es·huenyo [esˈxweɲo] (dream).
- Unlike Spanish, stressed diacritics are not represented.
- Loanwords and foreign names retain their original spelling. So letters which are not in this orthography, like q or w, are used only in these types of words.
Sample text in Ladino
Kada benadam i benadam nase forro i igual en dinyidad i en derechos.
Todos son baale razon i konsiensia i deven komportarsen los unos verso
los otros kon fraternidad.
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They
are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another
in a spirit of brotherhood.
(Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)
Information about Ladino |
Tower of Babel in Ladino
Information about Ladino / Judaeo-Spanish
Ladinokomunita - Ladino Preservation Council
Jewish Language Research Website
Free Hebrew fonts
Languages written with the Hebrew script