Words for oxen and related words in Celtic languages.

Inwa Ox Carts

Proto-Celtic *uksōn = ox, stag
Old Irish (Goídelc) oss = elk, deer, stag
Irish (Gaeilge) os [ɔsˠ/ʌsˠ] = deer (literary)
oiseoil [ˈɛʃˌoːlʲ/ˈɪʃˌoːlʲ] = venison
oisín [əˈʃiːnʲ/ˈɔʃiːnʲ/ˈʌʃinʲ] = fawn (young deer)
Oisín = name, and a character in Irish myths
oisín róin = young seal
osbhuí = fawn (colour)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) os [os] = deer
oisfheoil [ɔʃjɔl] = venison
Proto-Brythonic *uxī = ox
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ych, ich = ox
Welsh (Cymraeg) ych [ɨːχ/iːχ] = ox
ych gwyllt = wild ox, bison, buffalo
gwin yr ych = spring-water (“wine of the ox”)
Cornish (Kernewek) oghen = oxen
Old Breton ohen = ox
Breton (Brezhoneg) och’en = ox

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *uksḗn (bull) [source].

Proto-Celtic *damos = ox, bull, domesticated animal
*dametos = sheep
Old Irish (Goídelc) dam [daṽ] = ox, stag, hero, champion
Irish (Gaeilge) damh [d̪ˠaw] = ox, stag; strong man, champion, corpulent person
damh alla = stag
damh comhair = one of a pair of oxen, yokefellow; equal, peer
damháire = bellowing, lowing (of oxen), belling (of stag)
damhán = small ox
damhra = oxen, yoke of oxen; stags, herd of deer
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) damh [dav] = stag (antlered, up to 4 yrs old), ox, oaf, crab missing a claw
damh-féidh = hart, stag
cho dall ri damh ann an ceò = as blind as a bat in daylight (“as blind as an ox in the fog”)
Manx (Gaelg) dow = ox, hart, stag
Proto-Brythonic *daβ̃ad = sheep
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dauat, davad = sheep
Welsh (Cymraeg) dafad [ˈdavad/ˈdaːvad] = sheep, ewe; one who is under the charge of a spiritual pastor
defaid cymorth = sheep given to a needy person to form the nucleus of a flock
dafad ddu = black sheep, prodigal son, ne’er do-well of a family
defaid Dafydd Jos = waves, billows (“David Jones’ sheep”)
mynd yn draed defaid = to go to ruin (“to become sheep’s feet”)
Old Cornish dauat = sheep
Cornish (Kernewek) davas = ewe, sheep
kig davas = mutton
Breton (Brezhoneg) dañvad [ˈdãː.vat] = sheep; overly kind, gentle person; cuckold, flock; small, fluffy clouds, foamy waves
dañvadez = ewe

Etymology: the Brythonic words come from *dametos, which comes from *damos. Both these words come from the Proto-Indo-European *demh₂- (to domesticate, tame) [source]. The English words tame, (in)domitable and danger come from the same PIE root [source].

More sheep and deer related words.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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