Northern Sámi language, alphabet and pronunciation
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Northern Sámi (davvisámegiella)

Northern Sámi, or North Sámi, is a Western Sámi language spoken by about 15-25,000 people mainly in northern Norway, and also in northern Sweden and northern Finland. This language was formally called Lapp or Lappish, however these terms are no longer used.

Northern Sámi was first documented in a grammar and dictionaries published in the mid-18th century by Knud Leem. The current orthography for Northern Sámi developed from the spelling system developed by Rasmus Rask and first published in 1832. Rask worked on the principle of one letter per sound. Separate orthographies developed in Norway, Sweden and Finland, but the systems used in Norway and Sweden were combined from 1948, and an official orthography for use in all three countries was adopted in 1979, and last modified in 1985.

In Norway Northern Sámi is an official language in two counties (Finnmark and Troms) and six municipalities (Kautokeino, Karasjok, Nesseby, Tana, Porsanger and Gáivuotna (Kåfjord)). In Karasjok and Kautokeino approximately 90% of the people speak Northern Sámi.

Northern Sámi is taught in some kindergartens, primary schools and secondary schools. Some college courses are available in or taught through Northern Sámi, and there are also language courses for adults. The language is used in local administration in areas where it is widely spoken, and there is one newspaper, Ávvir, in Northern Sámi.

Northern Sámi alphabet and pronunciation

Northern Sámi alphabet

Northern Sámi alphabet

Northern Sámi pronunciation

Northern Sámi pronunciation

Notes

  • b, d and g are unvoiced at the beginning of words
  • i = [j] when followed by a vowel
  • á = [a] before htt, hpp, hkk, hcc or hčč
  • d = [ð] between 2nd and 3rd syllables
  • t = [ʰt] when at the end of a word, but when a word ending in t is in the middle of a sentence, the t is dropped. For example, Bures dat manná [b̥ures d̥ah manna:]
  • p, t & k are often pre-aspriated after vowels, e.g. dat = [d̥aʰt]
  • A schwa (ə) can be added when a consonant is followed by two consonants, e.g. golbma = [g̥oləbma], and is always added between lg, rd, rv; e.g. olgun [oləg̥u:n]

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Sample text

Buot olbmot leat riegádan friddjan ja olmmošárvvu ja olmmošvuoigatvuođaid dáfus dássásažžab. Sii leat jierbmalaš olbmot geain lea oamedovdu ja sii gálggaše leat dego vieljačagat.

Hear a recording of this text by Ivvár Máhtte Eira Strand

Corrections to sample text by Irena Dahl

Translation

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
(Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)

Information about Northern Sámi | Northern Sámi phrases | Northern Sámi numbers | Tower of Babel in Northern Sámi

Links

Information about Northern Sámi
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northern_Sámi_language
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northern_Sami_orthography
http://www.allkunne.no/default.aspx?menu=7&id=861
http://www.calliidlagadus.org/govat/doc/sam_buot_arkkat.pdf
http://www.calliidlagadus.org/govat/doc/nor_alle_ark.pdf

Northern Sámi lessons
http://www4.ur.se/gulahalan/
http://www.e-skuvla.no/nb/portfolio/samegiella-1-2-3/
http://580.davvi.no
http://kursa.oahpa.no
http://clu.uni.no/bildetema/bildetema.html

Northern Sámi vocabulary
http://www.uta.fi/~km56049/same/svocab.html

Northern Sámi phrases
http://wikitravel.org/en/Saami_phrasebook
http://arran2.blogspot.co.uk/2007/01/sami-phrases_7367.html
http://www.samer.se/1471
http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Pagini_şterse/Fraze_uzuale_în_diferite_limbi#Lapon.C4.83_.28uralic.C4.83.29

Online Northern Sámi dictionaries
http://sanit.oahpa.no
http://giellatekno.uit.no/words/dicts/index.eng.html
http://www.ling.ohio-state.edu/~odden/saamidict/Saami Online Words.htm
http://533.davvi.no/ordbok_norsam.php
http://snl.no/samisk
http://clu.uni.no/bildetema/

Northern Sámi grammar
http://giellatekno.uit.no/cgi/index.sme.eng.html
http://oahpa.no/sme/gramm/grammatihkka.eng.html

Northern Saami interactive text corpus
http://giellatekno.uit.no/text.en.html

Online Northern Sámi news and radio
http://yle.fi/uutiset/sapmi/
http://sverigesradio.se/sida/gruppsida.aspx
http://www.nrk.no/sapmi/samegillii/

Sámi languages

Inari Sámi, Kildin Sámi, Lule Sámi, Northern Sámi, Pite Sámi, Skolt Sámi, Southern Sámi, Ter Sámi, Ume Sámi

Other languages written with the Latin alphabet


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