Panare (E’ñapa)

Panare is a Cariban language spoken in the west of Bolivar State in southern Venezuela, particularly south of Caicara del Orinoco, and west of the Cuchivero River. In 2012 there were about 4,180 speakers of Panare. Most of the women who speak it are monolingual, while the men are bilingual in Panare and Spanish.

The name Panare is a Tupí word meaning "friend" - the native name of the language and people is e’ñapa, which means '(indigenous) people'. The language is also known as E’ñapa Woromaipu, Abira, Eye, Eñapa, Eñepa, Mapoyo or Panari.

Panare is an officially recognized language in Venezuela. An orthography for Panare has been developed, and is used in educational materials produced by the Department of Indigenous Affairs of the Venezuelan Ministry of Education. Other publications use slightly different spelling systems.

Panare alphabet and pronunciation

Panare alphabet and pronunciation

Long vowels are indicated by doubling (aa, ee, etc).

Download an alphabet chart for Panare (Excel)

Sample videos in Panare


Information about the Panare language

Cariban languages

Akawaio, Akurio, Bakairi, Carib, Carijona, Hixkaryána, Ikpeng, Japreria, Macushi, Panare, Pemon, Tiriyó, Wayana, Ye’kuana, Yukpa

Languages written with the Latin alphabet

Page last modified: 23.04.21


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