Zhuang (Vahcuengh / Vaƅcueŋƅ / 話僮)

The Zhuang languages belong to the northern and Central Tai branches of the Kra-Dai language family. They are spoken mainly in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in southern China, and also in Yunnan, Guangdong, Guizhou, and Hunan Provinces.

Chinese linguists classify varieties of Zhuang into two groups: northern Zhuang dialects and southern Zhuang dialects. The different varieties of Zhuang are closely related, but not mutually intelligible. According to some linguists there are 36 distinct varieties of Zhuang, while others identify 13-16 varieties [source].

Standard Zhuang, the official version of Zhuang used and promoted by the Chinese government, is based mainly on the Yongbei dialect of Northern Zhuang, which is spoken in Shuangquiao in Wuming District of Guangxi, and on other northern dialects. Standard Zhuang has six tones. Other varities of Zhuang have between 5 to 11 tones.

Old Zhuang Script (sawndip)

Sawndip Zhuang was originally written with a mixture of standard Chinese characters, Chinese-like characters and other symbols. This script, known as the Old Zhuang Script or sawndip ("immature character"), dates back to the Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD) and was used to write folktales, myths, songs, play scripts, medical prescriptions, family genealogies, contracts, communist revolutionary propaganda, etc.

There are 16 main dialects of Zhuang, some of which differ from one another so much that they are mutually unintelligible, and therefore some linguists consider Zhuang a collection of closely related language rather than a single language with different dialects.

There is a standardised form of Zhuang, known as Yongbei Zhuang, based on the dialect of Wuming County in Guangxi. A slightly different standard, known as Bouyei, is used in Guizhou. A method of writing Zhuang based on the Wuming dialect and using a mixture of Latin and Cyrillic letters and a number of IPA symbols was devised in 1955. A reform in 1986 removed the non-Latin letters and replaced them with individual Latin letters or combinations of Latin letters.

Zhuang is a tonal language and Yongbei Zhuang has six tones which are indicated in writing with particular letters.

Standard Zhuang alphabets

Zhuang alphabets

Download an alphabet chart for Zhuang (Excel)

Sample texts in Yongbei Zhuang

Latin alphabet - 1957 version

Bouч bouч ma dəŋƨ laзƃɯn couƅ miƨ cɯyouƨ, cinƅyenƨ cəuƽ genƨli bouчbouч biŋƨdəŋз. Gyɵŋƽ vunƨ miƨ liзsiŋ cəuƽ lieŋƨsim, ɯŋdaŋ daiƅ gyɵngƽ de lumз beiчnueŋч ityieŋƅ.

Latin alphabet - 1982 version

Boux boux ma daengz lajmbwn couh miz cwyouz, cinhyenz caeuq genzli bouxboux bingzdaengj. Gyoengq vunz miz lijsing caeuq liengzsim, wngdang daih gyoengq de lumj beixnuengx ityiengh.

Old Zhuang Script (sawndip)

Sample text in Zhuang (sawndip)


All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
(Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)

Sample videos in Zhuang

Information about Zhuang | Phrases in Yongbei Zhuang | Numbers in Yongbei Zhuang


Information about the Zhuang language

Information about the Old Zhuang Script

Information about the Zhuang people

Tai-Kaidai languages

Ahom, Aiton, Bouyei, Isan, Kam, Khamti, (Tai) Khün, Lao, Lue, Northern Thai (Kam Mueang), Nùng, Shan, Sui, Tai Dam, Tai Dón, Tai Hongjin, Tai Laing, Tai Nuea, Tai Phake, Tai Ya, Thai, Thai Song, Yang Zhuang, Zhuang

Languages written with the Latin alphabet

Semanto-phonetic writing systems

Akkadian Cuneiform, Ancient Egyptian (Demotic), Ancient Egyptian (Hieratic), Ancient Egyptian (Hieroglyphs), Chinese, Chữ-nôm, Cuneiform, Japanese, Jurchen, Khitan, Linear B, Luwian, Mayan, Naxi, Sawndip (Old Zhuang), Sui, Sumerian Cuneiform, Tangut (Hsihsia)

Other writing systems

Page last modified: 15.03.23


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