LLL is a writing system invented by Levi Layague Miranda in 2004
It is intended to be used to write Tagalog, but its rule sets can
also be implemented to transcribe Sugbuhanon, Kapampangan, and
other major languages of the Philippines.
The purpose of LLL is to unify the languages of the Philippines
in writing, making it easier for Tagalog speakers to recognize,
learn and appreciate terms from other dialects and vice versa.
It has 777 basic characters (hence the term "LLL") and a thousand
of derivative characters. All of the characters are based on
the form and/or on the strokes of the Baybayin, an ancient
Philippine script. The Baybayin characters and strokes are blocked,
reversed and combined to form new characters to represent individual
root words. LLL employs a number of methods/rules in blocking or
stacking to promote easier character recognition and readability.
These methods are based on Baybayin kudlit system and on the
technique in producing semantic-phonetic Chinese characters.
- Type of writing system: semantic-phonetic
- Direction of writing: left to right in horizontal lines
- Used to write: Tagalog and other languages of the Philippines
The Baybayin serves as a building block for practically all LLL characters. However the Baybayin is only used to denote LLL character pronunciations are are not used in LLL scripts. This usage is similar to Bopomofo in Chinese. The Baybayin strokes are also modified, i.e. the curves are replaced by straight lines, for simplification purposes.
The purpose of this system is to write Western loan words (especially
Spanish and English) and colloquial words, to differentiate them from
Filipino words. This is similar to Katakana. The syllables resemble
their Baybayin counterparts. It has special transformation and stacking rules.
Fundamental LLL Brief Forms
A brief form is a special character which represents a single root word.
LLL Primary Brief Forms
The primary brief forms represent the 119 most commonly used words
and numerals of Tagalog. They are composed of two (2) baybayin characters
or strokes stacked/combined on a convenient manner.
These are special characters for the prefixes, suffixes and infixes
that play a vital role in the Tagalog language.
Tails are semantic (conceptual) components and are used in
secondary brief forms and are combined with syllabary to form
thousands of unique characters. Each tail is based on the 17
modified baybayin characters. There are 119 tails that are used in LLL.
LLL Secondary Brief Forms
Each of the 119 tails bears four (4) brief forms, and they represent the
additional commonly used words in Tagalog (aside from the ones represented
by the fundamental and primary brief forms). The roster of the secondary
brief forms with 119 x 4 = 576 characters are yet to be finalized. A secondary
brief form is composed of a head and a tail. The head denotes its sound;
it is composed of one or two baybayin character(s) that refers to the sound
of the word. A conceptual component, i.e. tail, is attached to its right
of the head, to complete its context.
LLL Primary Tail-Syllabary Combination
The number of brief forms are limited to 119 primary and 576 secondary
to prevent confusion in reading. For words that are not included in the brief
forms lists and are not of foreign origin, they are transcribed using the
tail-syllabary combinations. The LLL syllabary is used as phonetic
components of these characters. The stacking rules are also applied.
The choice of tail to be used per word in question is still subject to
rigorous standardization. For short words (i.e. words that can be
represented by a maximum of two modified baybayin characters or repeated
root such as puspos, bagbag,etc.), the rules for examples below are
applied. Only one (1) prominent syllabary (the first syllable) is
used together with a suitable marker (a vowel syllabary which represent
the last vowel).
LLL Secondary Tail-Syllabary Combination
For long words (i.e. words that are represented by three or more modified
baybayin characters) that are not included in the brief forms lists, the
following examples illustrate the rules that apply:
LLL Panlapi Stacking
The LLL panlapi characters can be stacked on top and at the bottom
of any root word (brief form, syllabary complex or tail-syllabary combination),
with a maximum of two (2) for the top and one (1) at the bottom. The
panlapi characters are also modified or simplified when stacked.
The following examples illustrate this stacking principle:
LLL Punctuation Marks
Sample text in LLL
Ang lahat ng tao'y isinilang na malaya at pantay-pantay
Sa karangalan at mga karapatan. Sila'y pinagkalooban ng katuwiran at budhi
at dapat magpalagayan ang isa't isa sa diwa ng pagkakapatiran.
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.
They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards
one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
(Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)
Information about Tagalog |
Tagalog phrases |
Numbers in Tagalog |
Tower of Babel in Tagalog |
Tagalog learning materials
Other adapted writing systems