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LLL is a writing system that has been developed by Levi Layague Miranda since 2004. It is intended to be used to write Tagalog, but its rule sets can also be implemented to transcribe other major languages of the Philippines.

LLL could make it easier for Tagalog speakers to recognize, learn and appreciate terms from other Philippine languages. It has 777 basic characters and thousands of derivative characters. All of the characters are based on the form and strokes of the Baybayin, an ancient Philippine script. The Baybayin characters and strokes are blocked, reversed and combined to form new characters that represent individual root words. LLL employs a number of methods/rules in blocking or stacking to promote easier character recognition and readability. These methods are based on the Baybayin kudlit system and on the techniques in producing semantic-phonetic Chinese characters.

Notable Features

LLL Levels

Characters and rule sets in LLL are classified into seven (7) levels of understanding, with Level 1 as the most basic and Level 7 as the standard.

Level 1A: Modified Baybayin

The Baybayin serves as a building block for practically all LLL characters. However the Baybayin is only used to denote LLL character pronunciations are are not used in LLL scripts. This usage is similar to Bopomofo in Chinese. The Baybayin strokes are also modified, i.e. some of the curves are replaced by straight lines, for simplification purposes.

The following are the 17 modified Baybayin characters:

Modified Baybayin

For other syllable sounds, "kudlit" or marks are used. The rules for using kudlit are as follows: "i-kudlit" (symbol: `) is placed on top of characters to change the ending vowels to "i", or at the right side to change to "e"; "u-kudlit" (symbol: o) is placed at the bottom of characters to change the ending vowels to "u", or at the right side to change to "o"; "pananggal" kudlit (symbol: v) or cancellation mark is placed at the bottom of characters to cancel the vowel sound (e.g. ba + = b).

The following table illustrates the kudlit rules (NOTE: i and u are exceptions to the rules):

LLL kudlit rules

For foreign consonant sounds (v, ch, r, j, f, sh and th), "panayuhan" kudlit (symbol: ˥) or foreign mark is placed above characters for ba, ka, da, ga, fa, sa and ta, respectively. For "z", character for "s" is used. The kudlit rules are likewise applicable to this set of characters:

LLL kudlit rules - applicable characters

Level 1B: Fundamental Brief Forms and Punctuation

A brief form in LLL is composed of a single character and is an abbreviation of a word. The seven (7) fundamental brief forms are the following:

LLL Fundamental Brief Forms and Punctuation

The first three (3) characters, for araw, buwan and taon, can be used to write dates:

LLL dates

The following table presents the punctuation marks used in LLL. They are based on Baybayin and Japanese punctuation marks. All other marks not included in this list remain as they are in English.

LLL punctuation

More details of LLL (PDF)

Sample text in LLL

Sample text in LLL

Tagalog version

Ang lahat ng tao'y isinilang na malaya at pantay-pantay Sa karangalan at mga karapatan. Sila'y pinagkalooban ng katuwiran at budhi at dapat magpalagayan ang isa't isa sa diwa ng pagkakapatiran.


All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
(Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)

Information about Tagalog | Phrases | Numbers | Time | Tongue twisters | Tower of Babel | Tagalog learning materials

Other adapted writing systems