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Vietnamese (tiếng việt / 㗂越)

Vietnamese is a member of the Vietic branch of the Austroasiatic language family. It is spoken mainly in Vietnam, and in Guangxi Province in southern China, and in Cambodia and Laos. There are also significant numbers of Vietnamese speakers in France, Australia, and the USA. In 2007 there were about 75 million speakers of Vietnamese.

Vietnamese at a glance

  • Native name: tiếng việt [tĭəŋ vìəˀt] / [tǐəŋ jìək]
  • Linguistic affliation: Austroasiatic, Vietic, Viet-Muong
  • Number of speakers: c. 75 million
  • Spoken in: Vietnam, China, Cambodia, Laos
  • First written: 13th century
  • Writing system: Chữ-nôm script, Latin script
  • Status: official language in Vietnam. Recognised minority language in the Czech Republic

Traditionally Vietnamese is classified as a member of the Mon-Khmer branch of the Austroasiatic language family. However, recently linguists have proposed that Vietnamese and Muong should be classified as a separate branch of that family, called Vietic or Viet-Muong.

Vietnamese is the official language of Vietnam, and is spoken by the majority of the population as a native language. Ethnic minority groups speak it as a second language. Vietnamese is also recognised as a minority language in the Czech Republic

Written Vietnamese

During the period when Vietnam was dominated by China (939-1919) the main written language used, at least at first, was Classical Chinese (chữ nho), while Vietnamese was an oral language. Chinese texts were read with Vietnamese pronunciation, and many Chinese words were borrowed into Vietnamese, to create a Sino-Vietnamese form of language.

From about the 13th century, Vietnamese was written with a script adapted from Chinese known as Chữ-nôm (𡨸喃) or Nôm (喃). At first most Vietnamese literature was essentially Chinese in structure and vocabulary. Later literature developed a more Vietnamese style, but was still full of Chinese loan words. The greatest literary work in Vietnamese is Kim Van Kieu, the 'Tale of Kieu', a romance written by Nguyen-Du (1765-1820).

Chữ-nôm was used until the 20th century. Courses in the Chữ-nôm script were available at Ho Chi Minh University until 1993, and the script is still studied and taught at the Han-Nôm Institute in Hanoi, which has recently published a dictionary of all the nôm characters.

During the 17th century, Roman Catholic missionaries introduced a Latin-based orthography for Vietnamese, Quốc Ngữ (national language),which has been used ever since. Until the early 20th century, Quốc Ngữ was used in parallel with Chữ-nôm. Today only Quốc Ngữ is used.

Vietnamese alphabet and pronunciation

Vietnamese alphabet and pronunciation

Notes

Tones

Northern varieties of Vietnamese have the following six tones: varieties have five tones.

Vietnamese tones

In central and southern varieties of Vietanamese, the nặng tone, which is pronounced [˨˧], and the ngã tone is replaced with the hỏi tone by many people.

Download an alphabet chart for Vietnamese (Excel)

You can hear how to pronounce the Vietnamese letters and tones at:
www.seasite.niu.edu/Vietnamese/Guide_to_Pronunciation/alphabet/alphabet_system.htm

Vietnamese official cursive script (mẫu chữ thảo tiếng việt)

This script was officially adopted in June 2002, and it is taught in schools in Vietnam.

Vietnamese official cursive script (mẫu chữ thảo tiếng việt)

Sample text in Vietnamese

Tất cả mọi người sinh ra đều được tự do và bình đẳng về nhân phẩm và quyền lợi. Mọi con người đều được tạo hóa ban cho lý trí và lương tâm và cần phải đối xử với nhau trong tình anh em.

A recording of this text by Phan Tuấn Quốc (from south Vietnam)

A recording of this text by Nguyễn Văn Thắng (from north Vietnam)

Translation

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
(Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)

Sample video in Vietnamese

Information about Vietnamese | Chữ-nôm script | Phrases | Colours | Numbers | Family words | Tower of Babel | Learning materials

Links

Information about the Vietnamese language
http://www.seasite.niu.edu/vietnamese/VNMainpage/vietsite/vietsite.htm
http://www.public.asu.edu/~ickpl/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnamese_language

Online Vietnamese lessons
http://www.seasite.niu.edu/vietnamese/vnlanguage/supportns/tableofcontent.htm
http://www.public.asu.edu/~ickpl/vnonline/
http://learnviet.blogspot.com
http://yourvietnamese.com
https://www.udemy.com/learn-to-speak-vietnamese-like-a-native
http://www.learnvietnamese.org
http://www.ilearnvietnamese.com
http://polymath.org/vietnamese.php
http://ilovelanguages.org/vietnamese.php

VietnamesePod101.com - Learn Vietnamese with Free Podcasts
Learn to Speak Vietnamese, in northern and southern accents, with Interactive Bilingual Lessons
Learn Northern Vietnamese or Southern Vietnamese with Glossika

Collections of Vietnamese phrases
https://wikitravel.org/en/Vietnamese_phrasebook
https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Vietnamese/Common_phrases
http://linguanaut.com/english_vietnamese.htm
http://www.vietnamtravel.org/learn-vietnamese
http://www.101languages.net/vietnamese/basics.html

Learn Vietnamese with VietnamesePod101.com

Learn to Speak Vietnamese, in northern and southern accents, with Interactive Bilingual Lessons

Vietnamese Accents - automatically inserts Vietnamese accent marks
http://vietnameseaccent.com

Vietnamese/English forum
http://vietnameseonline.net

Online Vietnamese dictionaries
http://www.informatik.uni-leipzig.de/~duc/Dict/
http://vdict.com
http://www.vietnamesedictionary.net

Vietnamese Electronic talking dictionaries
http://www.ectaco.com

Vietnamese fonts
http://fontchu.com
http://www.vps.org
http://sourceforge.net/projects/vietunicode/

Online radio in Vietnamese
http://www.vietnamradio.com
http://www.rfa.org/vietnamese/

Online news in Vietnamese
http://dantri.com.vn/
http://nguoi-viet.com/
http://www.nhandan.org.vn
http://www.vietnamdaily.com
http://www.rfa.org/vietnamese/

Native content for Vietnamese learners
http://langreviews.com/native-content-vietnamese/

Vietic languages

Kri, Muong, Vietnamese

Other languages written with the Latin alphabet


If you need to type in many different languages, the Q International Keyboard can help. It enables you to type almost any language that uses the Latin, Cyrillic or Greek alphabets, and is free.

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