Tonkawa (Tickanwa•c / Tickanwa•tic)

Tonkawa is a language isolate that was spoken in western Oklahoma, southern Texas and New Mexico in the USA. Historically (until the 1884), the Tonkawa people (Tickanwa’tic) lived between the Llano River in central Texas and the Canadian River in Oklahoma. The last people to speak it as a first language died in the 1940s, however efforts are being made to restore and preserve it, particularly by the Tonkawa Tribe of Oklahoma.

Tonkawa alphabet and pronunciation

Tonkawa alphabet and pronunciation

Download an alphabet chart for Tonkawa (Excel)

The orthography shown here is the one that appears the website of the Tomkawa Tribe of Oklahoma. Other orthographies are available.

Sample text

ha·csokonayla ha·nanoklaknoˀo xamˀalˀa·yˀik. ˀe·kʷa tanmaslakʷa·low hecne·laklaknoˀo lak. ha·csokonayla "ˀo·c!" noklaknoˀo. "ˀekʷanesxaw sa·ken nenxales!" noklaknoˀo. ˀe·ta tanmaslakʷa·lowa·ˀa·lak hewleklaknoˀo


Coyote / he was going along, S / on the prairie. When he did so / Jackrabbit / he was lying, S / (accus.). Coyote / "Oho!" / he said, S. "Horse /my / I have found it!" / he said, S. And then / that Jackrabbit afm / he caught him, S

Note: S is an abbreviation for "it is said", and afm for "the aforementioned".


Information about Tonkawa | Numbers


Information about Tonkawa

Language isolates

Adaizan, Ainu, Basque, Burushaski, Candoshi-Shapra, Chitimacha, Eskayan, Hadza, Haida, Karuk, Kawésqar, Keres, Kuot, Kusunda, Kutenai, Natchez, Nihali, Nivkh, Páez, Purepecha, Sandawe, Seri, Sumerian, Tartessian, Ticuna, Tiwi, Tonkawa, Tunica, Urarina, Waorani, Wardaman, Washo, Yaghan, Yuchi/Euchee, Zuni

Languages written with the Latin alphabet

Page created: 15.09.23. Last modified: 15.09.23


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