Navajo (Diné Bizaad)
Navajo is a member of the Athabaskan branch of the Na-Dené language family and is
spoken by about 120,000 people in Arizona and New Mexico. It is closely related to the Apache
languages, but completely unrelated to other Native American languages.
Navajo first appeared in writing in 1849 in the form of a Navajo word list published in the
Journal of a Military Reconnaissance by Lt. James H. Simpson. At the beginning of the 20th century
missionaries began producing religious texts, dictionaries and grammars in Navajo. Each missionary
invented his own spelling system so many different ways to write Navajo emerged. In the 1930s however,
John Collier, the head of Indian Affairs and Willard Beatty, the head of Indian Education, decided that a
standard Navajo alphabet was needed and they commissioned John Harrington, Robert Young, William
Morgan, and Oliver LaFarge to create such an alphabet and to publish Navajo language materials.
By 1939 the new alphabet was finished and during the 1940s the first bilingual primers, Navajo
language children's books, a modern dictionary, and a monthly newsletter were published.
Unfortunately this alphabet was not popular among the Navajo, partly as a result of their
anger at Collier's policies on livestock reduction, which led them to distrust his literacy drive.
Recently there has been a revival of interest in the Navajo language and the development of
Navajo computer fonts has made it much easier to write, edit and publish written material in
- Navajo is a tonal language with three tones: high, rising and falling
- The high tone is marked with an acute accent (á, é, etc)
- The rising and falling tones occur only with long vowels
- The rising tone is marked with an acute accent on the last letter of the long vowel (aaí, eeí, etc)
- The falling tone is marked with an acute accent on the first letter of the long vowel (áa, ée, etc)
- The low tone is not marked.
Sample text in Navajo
Bilaʼashdaʼii tʼáá ałtsoh yiníkʼehgo bidizhchįh dóó aheełtʼeego ílį́į́go bee baahóchįʼ. Eíí háníʼ dóó hánítshakees hwiihdaasyaʼ eíí binahjį́ʼ ahidiníłnáhgo álíleekʼehgo kʼé bee ahił niidlį́.
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason
and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
(Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)
Tower of Babel in Navajo
Information about the Navajo language
Online Navajo lessons
Recordings of Navajo
Official website of the Navajo Nation
Navajo Language Academy
Navajo Times - The Newpaper of the Navajo People (in English)
Navajo Code Talkers' Dictionary
Other languages written with the Latin alphabet