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Estonian (eesti keel)

Estonian is a Finnic language closely related to Finnish, and spoken by about 1.1 million people in Estonia. The main difference between these two languages is that Finnish has many loanwords from Swedish, while Estonian contains many words of German origin, plus some from Russian, Latin, Greek and English. There is considerable mutual intelligibility between Estonian and Finnish.

Estonian has two groups of dialects: northern and southern. The northern dialects are associated with the city of Tallinn, and the southern ones with Tartu. Standard Estonian is based on the northern dialects. The southern dialects are sometimes considered separate languages.

Estonian was the state language of Estonia from 1919 to 1945. During the Soviet period Estonian was one of the the official languages, along with Russian, and most Estonians became bilingual in Estonian and Russian. Non-Estonians had to learn Estonian in school, however many considered learning the language unnecessary. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1989 Estonian became the state language once more, and Russian was discouraged.

The oldest examples of written Estonian are names, words, and phrases found in early 13th century chronicles. The earliest surviving longer text dates from the 16th century. An Estonian textbook first appeared in 1637. Ferdinand Johann Wiedemann published the comprehensive Estonian-German dictionary in 1869, and a grammar describing the Estonian language in 1875. Most Estonian literature has been produced since the early 19th century, and particularly in the early 20th century.

When Estonian was first written there was no standard alphabet. People used an ad hoc spelling system based on Latin and Middle Low German. In the 17th century Bengt Gottfried Forselius and Johann Hornung created a way of writing Estonian based on German. That was replaced by a Finnish-based orthography, known as the Newer Orthography, created by Eduard Ahrens in the second half of the 19th century. This was the basis for the current orthography.

Estonian alphabet (eesti keele tähestik)

Estonian alphabet

Estonian pronunciation

Estonian pronunciation


Information about the Estonian alphabet and pronunciation compiled by Wolfram Siegel, with corrections by Allan Kiisk, and some details from:

Sample text in Estonian

Kõik inimesed sünnivad vabadena ja võrdsetena oma väärikuselt ja õigustelt. Neile on antud mõistus ja südametunnistus ja nende suhtumist üksteisesse peab kandma vendluse vaim.

A recording of this text by Ülle Hahndorf


All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
(Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)

Sample video in Estonian

Information about Estonian | Phrases | Numbers | Proverbs | Tongue twisters | Tower of Babel | Learning materials


Information about the Estonian language

Online Estonian lessons

Learn Estonian with Glossika - Fluency is Confidence. Start speaking today!

Estonian phrases

Online Estonian dictionaries

Estonian Electronic talking dictionaries

Online Estonian radio

Online Estonian news

Finnic languages

Estonian, Finnish, Karelian, Kven, Livonian, Veps, Võro, Votic

Other languages written with the Latin alphabet

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