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Numbers in Old Celtic languages

  Proto-Celtic Gaulish Common Brittonic Old Welsh Middle Welsh
Primitive Irish Old Irish Classical Gaelic
1 oinos oino oinos un un oinas oen óen
2 dwai do dau dou deu (m) dwy (f) dau dáu
3 treis tri tris tri tri (m) teir (f) tris trí trí
4 kwetweres petor petwar petguar pedwar (m) pedeir (f) kwetur cethair cethir
5 kwenkwe pempe pempe pump pym(p) kweggwe cóic cóic
6 swexs suekos swexs chwech chwech swes
7 sextam sextam sextan saith seith sextan secht secht
8 oxtu oxtu oxta oith wyth oxtan ocht ocht
9 nowan nau nowan naw naw nouin noí noí
10 dekam decam dekan dec deg dekan deec/deich dech

Additional numbers in Middle Welsh: 11 un ar ddeg, 12 deuddeg, 13 tri/teir ar ddeg, 14 pedwar/pedair ar ddeg, 15 pymtheg, 16 un ar bymtheg, 17 deu/dwy ar bymtheg, 18 deunaw, 19 pedwar/pedair ar bymtheg, 20 ugein(t), 21 un ar ugein, 30 deg ar ugein, 40 deu ugain / dugein, 50 deg ar ddeu ugain/ddugein, 60 trei ugein, trugein, 100 can(t), 1000 mil.


  • Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, is the reconstructed ancestor of all known Celtic languages. The Late Bronze Age Urnfiend culture of Central Europe of the last quarter of the second millennium BC is the earliest example of what is considered Proto-Celtic culture.
  • Gaulish is an extinct Celtic language that was spoken in parts of what is now France, Switzerland, Belgium and northern Italy until about the 6th century AD.
  • Common Brittonic is the reconstructed ancestor of the Brythonic or British branch of the Insular Celtic languages (Welsh, Cornish, Breton, Cumbric and possibly Pictish).
  • Old Welsh (Hen Gymraeg) is the name given to the Welsh spoken between about 800 AD and the early 12th century.
  • Middle Welsh (Kymraec / Cymraeg Canol) is the form of Welsh spoken from the 12th to the 14th century.
  • Primitive Irish, or Archaic Irish (Gaeilge Ársa) is a form of Irish known from inscriptions in Ogham found in Ireland and western parts of Britain. It was spoken between about the 4th and the 7th or 8th centuries AD.
  • Old Irish is the form of Irish which first appeared in writing in about 700 AD and was used until about 900 AD. It is the ancestor of Modern Irish, Manx and Scottish Gaelic.
  • Classical Gaelic was the literary form of Gaelic used in Ireland and Scotland between the 13th and the 18th centuries.


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