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Numbers in Old Celtic languages

How to count in ancient Celtic languages.


Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, is the reconstructed ancestor of all known Celtic languages. The Late Bronze Age Urnfiend culture of Central Europe of the last quarter of the second millennium BC is the earliest example of what is considered Proto-Celtic culture.

1 oinos
2 dwai
3 treis
4 kwetweres
5 kwenkwe
6 swexs
7 sextam
8 oxtu
9 nowan
10 dekam

Common Brittonic and early forms of Welsh

Common Brittonic is the reconstructed ancestor of the Brythonic or British branch of the Insular Celtic languages (Welsh, Cornish, Breton, Cumbric and possibly Pictish).

Old Welsh (Hen Gymraeg) is the name given to the Welsh spoken between about 800 AD and the early 12th century.

Kymraec / Cymraeg Canol) is the form of Welsh spoken from the 12th to the 14th century.

  Common Brittonic Old Welsh Middle Welsh
1 oinos un un
2 dau dou deu (m) dwy (f)
3 tris tri tri (m) teir (f)
4 petwar petguar pedwar (m) pedeir (f)
5 pempe pump pym(p)
6 swexs chwech chwech
7 sextan saith seith
8 oxta oith wyth
9 nowan naw naw
10 dekan dec deg
11 - - un ar ddeg
12 - - deuddeg
13 - - tri/teir ar ddeg
14 - - pedwar/pedeir ar ddeg
15 - - pymtheg
16 - - un ar bymtheg
17 - - deu/dwy ar bymtheg
18 - - deunaw
19 - - pedwar/pedair ar bymtheg
20 - - ugein(t)
21 - - un ar ugein
30 - - deg ar ugein
40 - - deu ugain / dugein
50 - - deg ar ddeu ugain/ddugein
60 - - trei ugein, trugein
100 - - can(t)
1,000 - - mil

Early forms of Irish/Gaelic

Primitive Irish, or Archaic Irish (Gaeilge Ársa), is a form of Irish known from inscriptions in Ogham found in Ireland and western parts of Britain. It was spoken between about the 4th and the 7th or 8th centuries AD.

Old Irish is the form of Irish which first appeared in writing in about 700 AD and was used until about 900 AD. It is the ancestor of Modern Irish, Manx and Scottish Gaelic.

Classical Gaelic was the literary form of Gaelic used in Ireland and Scotland between the 13th and the 18th centuries.

  Primitive Irish Old Irish Classical Gaelic
1 oinas oen óen
2 dau dáu
3 tris trí trí
4 kwetur cethair cethir
5 kweggwe cóic cóic
6 swes
7 sextan secht secht
8 oxtan ocht ocht
9 nouin noí noí
10 dekan deec/deich dech


Sources of these numbers

Information about these languages

Numbers in Celtic languages

Numbers in other languages