Carolinian (Refalúwasch)

Carolinian is a Micronesian language spoken in the Northern Mariana Islands, where it is a statutory language of national identity, and co-official with English and Chamorro. According to the 2000 census, there are 2,420 speakers of Carolinian, which is also known as Saipan Carolinian or Southern Carolinian. Carolinian is most closely related to Satawalese, Woleaian and Puluwatese.

Carolinian is taught in primary and secondary schools, and used in the media and literature. There have been various ways to write the language based on German, English and Chamorro spelling systems. A standard orthography was established in 1977, and revised in 2004.

Carolinian alphabet and pronunciation

Carolinian alphabet and pronunciation

Download an alphabet chart for Carolinian (Excel)

Sample video in Carolinian

Information about Carolinian | Numbers


Information about Carolinian

Micronesian languages

Carolinian, Chuukese, Kiribati (Gilbertese), Kosraean, Marshallese, Mokilese, Mortlockese, Nauruan, Pááfang, Pingelapese, Pohnpeian, Puluwatese, Satawalese, Sonsorolese, Tobian, Ulithian, Woleaian

Languages written with the Latin alphabet

Page last modified: 07.10.23


Green Web Hosting - Kualo

Why not share this page:


Conversations - learn languages through stories

If you like this site and find it useful, you can support it by making a donation via PayPal or Patreon, or by contributing in other ways. Omniglot is how I make my living.


Note: all links on this site to, and are affiliate links. This means I earn a commission if you click on any of them and buy something. So by clicking on these links you can help to support this site.

Get a 30-day Free Trial of Amazon Prime (UK)