Sioux

The Siouan languages are spoken in the USA and Canada by a total of some 23,000 people. There is considerable mutual intelligibility between the Lakota and Dakota languages, but relatively limited mutual intellibility between the other Siouan languages.

The name "Sioux" is a French version of the Ojibwa word nadewisou, which means "treacherous snakes". The native names for the Sioux mean "An Alliance of Friends", which is Dakhota in the Santee dialect, Nakhota in the Yankton dialect and Lakhota in the Teton dialect. There are a number of different spellings of these names.

Siouan languages include:

Lakota (Lakhóta), spoken by about 9,000 people in seven tribes, the Oglala, in the US states of Northern Nebraska, southern Minnesota, North and South Dakota and northeastern Montana, and also in Canada

Western Dakota (Dakhóta), spoken by a few hundred people in two tribes: the Yankton and Yanktonai.

Eastern Dakota (Dakhóta), spoken by a few hundred people in four tribes: the Santee, Sisseton, Wahpeton and Wahpekute.

The two Nakoda languages (Assiniboi and Stoney) are not considered part of the "Sioux" language as they are not mutually intelligible or politically affiliated with the Sioux. They do belong to the Siouan language family, as do many other languages.

Written Sioux

The first alphabet for Sioux, known as Riggs, was devised by the missionaries Samuel and Gideon Pond, Stephen Return Riggs and Dr Thomas S. Williamson in 1834. They based their spelling system on the Santee dialect (Dakota) and used it to translate biblical texts into that dialect. The Dakota translation of the bible was well known and used among the Dakota and Lakota.

A revised version of this system was used in Riggs' Dakota Grammar, published in 1852, and in his Dakota-English dictionary, published in 1890. Since then a number of other Lakota and Dakota spelling systems have been devised, details of which can be found at: http://www.inext.cz/siouan/orthog.htm

Lakota pronunciation

Lakota Sioux pronunciation

Source: http://www.inext.cz/siouan/alphabet/alphabet.htm

Dakhota Sioux pronunciation (White Hat spelling)

Dakota Sioux pronunciation

Sample text in Dakota Sioux

The Deer Woman

Wičháša waƞ wayéi k´a tháȟča núm wičháo kéyápi´. Taƞyéna wičháphate č´a thadó kiƞ thašúƞke k´iƞkhíye č´a waná wí khúčiyena čhaƞkhé tiyátakiya kúyaƞka kéyápi´. Mayá waƞ aphážežeyena asníkiya-iyotaka uƞkháƞ akhótaƞhaƞ wíƞyaƞ waƞ mayá-akdákda thahénakiya úyaƞka e waƞyák yaƞká kéyápi´. Waná hihúƞni k´a wičháša kiƞ isákhip hinážiƞ k´éyaš inína yaƞká uƞkháƞ haƞkéya kičhí íyotake č´a – Tokhe iyémayakiyešni se? Tókha uƞkháƞ inína naƞká he? – eyé č´a íš iyá mayá kiƞ éd hú ǧéǧeya íyotaka kéyápi´.

Part of a story called "The Deer Woman" written down by Ella Deloria and in the Ullrich 1992 orthography

Hear a recording of this text by Jared Lanz

Source: http://www.languagegeek.com/siouan/y_dakotastory.html - shows the same text in a number of different spelling systems

Sample texts in Lakota Sioux

Turtle Moccasin Boy

Hećeś hokśila wan kunśitku kićilaḣći ti śke. Yunkan anpetu wan el kunśitku kin ćanḳin iyaya ćanke hokśila kin iśnala tiyata yanke ćin ićunhan hitunkala wan taku yaḳoġa-han ća naḣun keye. Ḳeyaś he winuḣćala kin woyute mahel yuha kin hokśila kin hehanhunniyan slolye śni keye. Ho, tka wana le naḣun kin un wole yunkan wasna wan lila waśte kunśitku kin gnaka ća he e ća hitunkala kin yuta-han keye.

Part of a story called "Turtle Moccasin Boy" written down by Ella Deloria and in the Riggs 1852 orthography

Hear a recording of this text by Jared Lanz

Source: http://www.languagegeek.com/siouan/lakotastory.html - shows the same text in eight different Lakota spelling systems

Man rescued by eagles

Eháŋni héčheš oyáte waŋ igláka áyiŋ na waná éthipi yuŋhĥáŋ wičháša waŋ tĥawiču kiŋ hečíya: "Winúĥča, itĥó wayé mní kte ló, " eyá.

Ečháš toháŋ waglí šni héhaŋ éna thí po, " eyá.

Hear a recording of this text by Jared Lanz

Translation

Long ago, the tribe was moving camp and were erecting their tipis at the new place when a man said to his wife: " Wife, I think I must go out and hunt."

So don't move on with the tribe if they should go on, but stay camped here until I return."

An extract from "Man rescued by eagles" by George Bushotter

You can see and hear the complete story at
http://www.inext.cz/siouan/bushotter/bushotter.htm

Article 1 of the UDHR

Wičháša na wíŋyaŋ otóiyohi iglúhapi na iyéhaŋyaŋ wówažapi. Tȟaŋmáhel slol'íč'iyapi na kičhíwičhowepi s'e kičhíčhuwapi kta héčha.
Translated into Lakota Sioux by Joe Bellman

Hear a recording of this text by Jared Lanz

Literal translation

Each and every man and woman is free and has equal rights to things. They are sure of themselves in their mind, and they should treat each other as if they were siblings.

Standard translation

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Information about Sioux (Dakota, Lakota, Nakoda) | Lakota phrases | Tower of Babel in Dakota | Sioux learning materials

Links

Information about Sioux languages
http://www.sicc.sk.ca/heritage/sils/ourlanguages/cree.html
http://www.inext.cz/siouan/sioux-dialects.htm
http://www.inext.cz/siouan/

Online Sioux language lessons
http://fpcctalkindian.nativeweb.org
http://www.alliance2k.org/daklang1/daklang1.html

Online Sioux dicionaries
http://www.lakotadictionary.org/nldo.php
http://www.sageandsweetgrass.com/dictionary.aspx

Lakota Language Consortium
http://www.lakhota.org

Lakota Books
http://www.lakotabooks.com

Lakhota Sioux Heritage, Culture and Language site
http://www.lakhota.com

ELKDREAMER: David Little Elk - information about the Lakota language, Lakota courses and music: http://www.malakota.com

Oceti Wakan - Sacred Fireplace (a non profit dedicated to the preservation of lakota culture and language): http://www.ocetiwakan.org

Siouan languages

Crow, Dakota, Lakota, Omaha, Osage, Winnebago

Other languages written with the Latin alphabet