Raising Bilingual Children: The First Five Steps to Success
by Christina Bosemark, founder of the Multilingual Children's Association
When I was growing up, the only way to raise a truly international
child was via an exorbitantly priced Swiss boarding school. Luckily,
such elitism has been thrown out the window, and now parents raise
multilingual children themselves. The children grow up just as
world-savvy and sophisticated -- and actually know their own parents!
Still for the do-it-yourselfer, a few tips can smooth the way.
The most common question people ask me is "How do I raise a
bilingual child the best way?" "Easy, just talk to them!" is my
tongue-in-cheek response. It seems almost impossible to imagine the
baby transforming into a communicating creature, let alone one conversant
in several languages. Although the miraculous progress from cooing
to speech occurs in exactly the same fashion whether it transpires in
one or in several languages, the practicalities are different. Here
are the first steps to raising your very own polyglot tot.
Family agreement: Even though agreement within
the family is perhaps the most essential ingredient, I am sometimes
asked, "What do I do if my partner doesn't want me speaking to our
child in a language he doesn't understand?" An insecure spouse may
fear being excluded from "the secret language" between the other
parent and the child. Discuss and compromise. It is very important
that couples find some solution that is acceptable to both parents
as well as beneficial to the child.
Enthusiastic, yet realistic: Once the idea of
two languages has settled in, many people consider adding more.
Usually the number of languages spoken within the household is enough
for the child to absorb, but it's actually possible to successfully
introduce as many as four languages simultaneously -- provided you
can offer enough exposure and need for each one. Still, research
suggests that a child needs to be exposed to a language 30% of his
or her waking time to actively speak it, and since waking time is
a finite quantity, so, too, is language acquisition.
The practical plan: Next, you need to make sure
you have a plan. Agree on who speaks what language to whom and then
stick to it. There are endless variations on the two most successful
language systems. The most common involves one person who always
speaks to the child in the 'foreign' language. Anyone who is spending
a significant amount of time with the child can function as this primary
speaker. The second most common language system is where the whole
family speaks in the foreign language. To add another language beyond
those already spoken within the family, or if your family doesn't speak
any foreign languages, you'll need to provide an outside source like an
immersion program, a nanny or an au pair.
Get together: Building a support network is probably
the most underestimated success factor, so find others who are raising
their children to speak your language. You'll benefit from their
knowledge and be able to share both your doubts and your triumphs.
It also ensures future play dates that will provide your child with
the ultimate language teachers - other kids. Books, music, movies,
and toys in your minority language are the most obvious ways to boost
your child's exposure, but there is also an amazing range of other
household items such as place mats, tableware, posters, etc.
Be patient: Raising multilingual children requires
patience, and there are going to be times when doubt sneaks in. As with
most aspects of parenting, it's a long term commitment and there will
be ups and downs. But remember, that's happening to the parents of the
monolingual children too! Don't worry if your child doesn't speak his
multiple languages as quickly or as adeptly as his peers. Instead focus
upon his successes and marvel at the development of his little brain.
Always praise, praise, and then praise some more! Know that when your
child says, "I want a hug" in your language, you'll almost cry with
pride. At that moment, it won't matter that it took some extra effort
or that you had to wait a bit for the result.
And, hey, remember, you're not alone. Madonna, Andre Agassi, and Antonio
Banderas are among those raising bilingual children. And if they can do it,
why shouldn't you?
But, you are thinking to yourself, what about those people who say that
raising a child with a second language is a really bad idea, that it will
harm the primary language? Is there some truth to it? See the next article
in this series: Raising Bilingual Children:
Fact or Fiction? for more details.
About the author:
Christina Bosemark is the founder of the
Multilingual Children's Association,
your web-guide to raising bilingual children with expert advice, parent
discussions, resource directory and articles. She is also mother of two
trilingual daughters and co-founder of the Scandinavian immersion school in
Other articles in this series
Links to websites with information
and advice about raising multilingual children