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Postby spanick » Wed 02 Nov 2011 7:58 am

So here is what I've got so far for my conlang Jeteʔtix. Just thought I'd post it for comments, criticisms, suggestions etc. Some notes: all affixes (tense/aspect, person, case etc) are shown in their underlying form also, I'm not sure if my stress rules make any sense, so I'd like feedback on them. I haven't supplied any examples only because this post is already pretty long. I'd be ahppy to provide examples of words.

Underlying Phoneme Inventory
p t k ʔ
f θ s x h
m n ŋ
w l j

/h/ is the only sound which presents in the underlying phoneme list and is completely eliminated.

i (y) e (ø) u o a
/y/ and /ø/ are i-umlauted variants of /u/ and /o/ respectively. They are not independent phonemes.

Sounds changes
These sound changes represent changes from the root form to the surface form.
Onset phonologic changes
1. x → h ŋ → n
1. h → Ø ʔ → Ø

Coda phonologic changes
1a. x → h
1b. h → Ø*
2a. p → f
2b. f → s
2c. θ → s
2d. s → x
3. ʔ → Ø*
4a. t → k
4b. k → ʔ
5. l → t
6a. ŋ → Ø*
6b. n → ŋ
m → Ø*
w → Ø*
j → Ø*
*Vowels preceding these deleted consonants are lengthened due to compensatory lengthening.
Other rules: These rules are ordered after the above rules and are particularly important for verb conjugations.
[-front] → [+front] / (i)(C) ____ (C)(i)
Ø → j / V ___ V
i → j / ____ [+front]
o → w / C _____ V
CG → G / # ____ V
G → Ø / C ____ #
Ø → a / VCC ____#
*G represents glides /w j/
Stops are typically unaspirated but aspiration occurs in free variation especially for lower classes.
It is common for fricatives to become slightly voiced intervocalically although this is considered allophonic.

The only possible syllable structures are: (C)V(C). The nucleus is not shown to be long because in the underlying form there are no long vowels.

Stress typically falls on the penultimate syllable of a (root) word. Sometimes it may shift to the final. Most inflectional affixes do not affect root stress, but all derivational affixes do.
Stress rules: These are of particular importance for verb canjugations
V→→ʔ > Ø / V́C ____ #
$C → C$ / CV$ ____ #
C$→→ > $C / ____ $V́C#
σ́ →> σ / ____ (σ) σ́#

Nouns and Verbs are derived from three consonantal root CCC. These consonants are referred to by number based on their order form left to right C1-C2-C3. Adjectives usually come from two consonantal roots C1-C2. Adjectives may be longer if they are derived from nouns through a derivational affix.

Derivational affixes:
te-/t- definite
mu-/m- verb to noun (concrete)
o- verb to noun (abstract)
-il adjective to adverb
het- adjective to noun
-es adjective to verb
-ki adjective to adjective
-u noun to adjective
-ikpo noun to verb
ne-/n- negative

Underlying Personal Endings
Positive Personal Endings
1st Sg -ow 1st Pl -m
2nd Sg -s 2nd Pl -n
3rd Sg -t 3rd Pl -θe
Negative Personal Endings
1st Sg -now 1st Pl -nem
2nd Sg -nes 2nd Pl -nen
3rd Sg -net 3rd Pl -neθe

There are three aspects: simple, progressive and perfective. There are three tenses: present, past and future. There is only the indicative mood.

Verbs are classified into three classes depending on their morphological structure.
Class I CVC.CV
Verb Tense/Aspect Endings
Simple Present n/a
Simple Past -í
Simple Future -ó
Prog Present -aŋ
Prog Past -iŋ
Prog Future -oŋ
Perf Present pa-
Perf Past pi-
Perf Future po
*Class I verbs do not suffix the simple and progressive affixes but infix them between C2 and C3.
**Class III verbs do drop affix <p-> for the present perfect, rather than <pa->

Nouns and Adjectives
Nouns and adjectives like verbs, have certain morphological structures they follow.
Class I CVC.VC
Class I CV.CV
Class II VC.VC
Class IV CVC.V

Noun/Adjective/Pronoun Case Endings
NOM n/a
ACC -et
DAT -uʔjo
INS -w
GEN -ʔiŋ
LOC -lok
INE -θ
EQU -kin
ADE -on
APU -seθ
ELA -j
ILL -haθa

Adjectives agree in case and number. The generally follow the nouns they modify.

Class II and IIIa nouns and class I and III adjectives are made plural by reduplicating the final syllable. Class I and IIIb nouns are made by reduplicating C2 and using the reduplicated consonant as the onset of the final syllable. Class II adjectives reduplicate C1 and class IV adjectives reduplicate C2 then use the respective, reduplicated consonant as the onset for the final syllable.
Pronouns have two forms, the stand alone (nominative form) which also functions as the stem for when declensions beginning with consonants attaches. The second form is used for declensions which begin with a vowel. Everything in this heading is shown in its surface form.
1st Sg wo/m- 1st Pl lox/l-
2nd Sg ax/s- 2nd Pl ena/n-
3rd Sg jaʔ/t- 3rd Pl θi/θ-

Interrogative pronouns
Singular Plural
Who feh/f- exeh/ex-
What aʔ/aʔ- aθah/aθ-

Demonstratives (May also act as demonstrative pronouns)
Singular Plural
Proximal ja/j- ifa/if-
Medial te/t- ut/ut-
Distal ku/k- iŋ/ŋ-
* The medial demonstrative pronoun doubles as a derivational prefix which gives definiteness to the previous noun. For example /eʔtix/ means speech, spoken words but /teʔtix/ means language. This is one of the most common derivational affixes.
**The proximal demonstrative pronoun doubles as the definite article.

Basic word order is SOV.

This is as far as I've gotten so far. I'm having a lot of trouble with syntax

Examples: (these are shown in their surface forms)
Class I verb conjugated in the third person for each tense/aspect.
kaʔpa "to speak"
kaʔpa' "It speaks"
keʔíxta "It spoke"
keʔóxta "It will speak"
kata:pa' "It am speaking"
keti:pa' "It was speaking"
kato:pa' "It will be speaking"
pakaʔpa' "It have spoken"
pikeʔpa' "It had spoken"
pokaʔpa' "It will have spoken"

Class I Noun reduplication (root: θ-x-t)
singular θu:aʔ
plural θu:xaʔ
gloss apple
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Re: Jeteʔtix

Postby Vilņa » Wed 23 Nov 2011 3:26 am

Ah, I like this conlang. I like the fact that you put a chart of the different degrading sounds. Do you have an alphabet for this language, or do you only write it in the IPA?
Native: English
Fluent: Lingua Latina
Learning: Re en Kam, Κοινὴ Διάλεκτος ( Ἑλληνικά)
Plan to learn: Ænglisc, Русский Язык, मानक हिन्दी, संस्कृतम्, Gaeilge
Conlangs: Værí, Savih Tāvūṇ, Agínwas Biþar, Bi'dimall
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Re: Jeteʔtix

Postby Alex » Wed 23 Nov 2011 5:58 am

I too like it! The name is nifty too, and it has some of my favorite phonemes! :D

I can't wait to see more. :)
Lakhota -Currently trying to learn! :3
Russian - Going to learn!
Afrikaans, Arabic, Gaelic, and Tibetan! - want to learn!
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Re: Jeteʔtix

Postby spanick » Wed 23 Nov 2011 6:41 pm

First all, thanks a lot guys. It means a lot that you like it.

Vilņa wrote:Ah, I like this conlang. I like the fact that you put a chart of the different degrading sounds. Do you have an alphabet for this language, or do you only write it in the IPA?

I normally/prefer to write it in IPA but I do have a latinization which represents /θ/ as <z> /ŋ/ as <ng> /ʔ/ as <'>. The two front rounded vowels are written as u and o with umlauts. All other letters remain the same. Long vowels are not normally distinguished.
I prefer to use the script as a historical non-phonemic script. So that I write it for how words would be spelled in the underlying form but it pronounced as the surface form. For example /kaʔpaŋ/ (they speak) is rendered <katpan>, /θu:aʔ/ is rendered <zuxat>.

Unfortunately, I haven't done much work recently because of classes, except I have come up with a way of formatting the passive voice. The agent of the passive sentence is marked with the genitive ending and the patient of the passive sentence is marked as the subject of the sentence.
Ex: /jakatipa wøi: iʔtexta/ "The paper is read by me."
/ja-katipa-Ø wø-i: iʔtex-Ø-ta/
DEF-paper-NOM 1stS-GEN write-simple present-3rdS
and if you wanted to write it in the latinization <Jakitpa wö'ing iktepta>.

I'm open to any suggestions. Once I start working on it full swing again, I'll post more grammar and a better list of vocab.
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