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Prepositional pronouns

When pronouns and prepositions are combined they have special forms in the Gaelic languages. Or in other words, the prepositions conjugate for person.

At | On | Out of/From/Off | To/Towards | Of | For/To | Under | In | With | From | Through | Around | Before | Over | Between | Next to | To/Against/Towards/With By/Beside

Empahtic endings are showing in brackets.

Key off abbreviations

GE = Irish Gaelic (Gaeilge), GA = Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig), GV = Manx Gaelic (Gaelg), EN = English, sg = singular, pl = plural, frm = formal.

At

GE GA GV EN
ag aig ec at
agam(sa) agam(sa) aym(s) at me
agat(sa) agad(sa) ayd(s) at you (sg)
aige(san) aige(san) echey(syn) at him
aici(se) aici(se) eck(sh) at her
againn(e) againn(e) ain(yn) at us
agaibh(se) agaibh(se) eu(ish) at you (pl/frm)
acu(san) aca(san) oc(syn) at them

This preposition can be used off indicate possesion, capability, knowledge, feelings, obligation, advantage over or an agent. Here are some examples:

GE GA GV EN
Tá leabhar agam Tha leabhar agam Ta lioar aym I have a book
Tá súile gorma agat Tha sùile gorm agad Ta sooillyn gorrym ayd You have blue eyes
Tá Gaeilge aige Tha Gàidhlig aige Ta Gaelg echey He speaks (has) Gaelic
Tá grá aici dom Tha gràdh aici orm Ta graih eck orrym She loves me (has love for me)
Tá punt agaibh air Tha not agaibh air Ta punt eu er He owes you a pound
Tá ceol acu Tha ceòl aca Ta kiaull oc They have a talent for music

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On

GE GA GV EN
ar air er on
orm(sa) orm(sa) orrym(s) on me
ort(sa) ort(sa) ort(s) on you (sg)
air(san) air(san) er(syn) on him
uirthi(se) oirre(se) urree(ish) on her
orainn(e) oirnn(e) orrin(yn) on us
oraibh(se) oirbh(se) erriu(ish) on you (pl/frm)
orthu(san) orra(san) orro(syn) on them

This preposition can be used off indicate such things as illnesses and complaints, emotions, obligation, disadvantage or possibility. Here are some examples:

GE GA GV EN
Tá eagla orm Tha an t-eagal orm Ta aggle orrym I'm frightened
Tá ocras ort Tha acras ort Ta accrys ort You're hungry

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Out of / From / Off

GE GA GV EN
as às ass out of / from / off
asam(sa) asam(sa) assym(s) out of me
asat(sa) asad(sa) assyd(s) out of you (sg)
as(san) às(san) ass(syn) out of him
aisti(se) aiste(se) assjee(ish) out of her
asainn(e) asainn(e) assdooin(yn) out of us
asaibh(se) asaibh(se) assdiu(ish) out of you (pl/frm)
astu(san) asta(san) assdaue(syn) out of them

Examples:

  • Tá dóchas agam as = I have trust in him / I trust him (GE)
  • Tha sinn uabhasach pròiseil asad = We're terribly pround of you (GA)
  • Leig mi sgreuch asam = I let out a shriek (GA)
  • Cha vow eh monney assym = He won't get much change out of me (GV)
  • V'ee currit assjee = She was annoyed (GV)

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To / Towards

GE GA GV EN
chuig/chun gu hug to / towards
chugam(sa) thugam(sa) hym(s) to me
chugat(sa) thugad(sa) hood(s) to you (sg)
chuige(san) thuige(san) huggey(syn) to him
chuici(se) thuice(se) huic(ish) to her
chugainn(e) thugainn(e) hooin(yn) to us
chugaibh(se) thugaibh(se) hiu(ish) to you (pl/frm)
chucu(san) thuca(san) huc(syn) to them

The GA ones can also be written chugam, chugad, etc.

Examples:

  • Tháinig mé chugam féin = I recovered (came towards myself) (GE)
  • An tseachtain seo chugainn = next week (GE)
  • Cuiridh mi leabhar thuice = I'll send a book off to her (GA)

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Of

GE GA GV EN
de de jeh off
díom(sa) dhìom(sa) jeem(s) of me
díot(sa) dhìot(sa) jeed(s) of you (sg)
de(san) dheth(san) jeh(syn) of him
di(se) dhith(se) j'ee(ish) of her
dínn(e) dhinn(e) jin(yn) of us
díbh(se) dhibh(se) jiu(ish) of you (pl/frm)
díobh(san) dhiubh(san) jeu(syn) of them

The GA ones can also be written chugam, chugad, etc.

Examples:

  • a' chuid as mò dheth = most of it (GA)
  • amadan de dhuine = a fool of a man (GA)
  • cuir dhìot do chòta = take your coat off (GA)

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For / to

GE GA GV EN
do do da to
dom(sa) dhomh(sa) dou (dooys) to me
duit(sa) dhu(i)t(sa) dhyt(s) to you (sg)
dó(san) dha(san) da(syn) to him
di(se) dhi(se) jee(ish) to her
dúinn(e) dhuinn(e) dooin(yn) to us
daoibh(se) dhuibh(se) diu(ish) to you (pl/frm)
dóibh(san) dhaibh(san) daue(syn) to them

Examples:

  • Nollaig shona daoibh = Merry Christmas to you (GE)
  • Cárb as di? = Where's she from? (GE)
  • Dé a thachair dhut? = What happened to you? (GA)
  • Nì mi sin dhut = I'll do that for you (GA)
  • Inshym skeeal diu = I'm going to tell you a story (GV)
  • Jean dty leshtallyn jee! = Apologise to her! (GV)

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Under / About

GE GA GV EN
faoi fo fo under
fúm(sa) fodham(sa) foym(s) under me
fút(sa) fodhad(sa) foyd(s) under you (sg)
faoi(san) fodha(san) fo(syn) under him
fúithi(se) foidhpa(se)
foipe(se)
foee(ish) under her
fúinn(e) fodhainn(e) foin(yn) under us
fúibh(se) fodhaibh(se) feue(ish) under you (pl/frm)
fúthu(san) fòdhpa(san)
fòpa(san)
foue(syn) under them
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Examples:

  • Is fúithi féin atá sé = It's up to herself (GE)
  • Chuir siad fúthu cois an chladaigh = They settled (themselves down) by the shore (GE)
  • Chaidh am bàta fodha = The boat went under/sank (GA)
  • Chaidh a' chompanaidh fodha = The company failed/folded (GA)
  • Denee mee my chassyn lhoobey foym = I felt my legs give way beneath me (GV)
  • Doshil y thalloo foin = The ground gave way under us (GV)

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In

GE GA GV EN
i (ann) an ayns in
ionam(sa) annam(sa) aynym(s) in me
ionat(sa) annad(sa) aynyd(s) in you (sg)
ann(san) ann(san) ayn(syn) in him
inti(se) innte(se) aynjee(ish) in her
ionainn(e) annainn(e) ayndooin(yn) in us
ionaibh(se) annaibh(se) ayndiu(ish) in you (pl/frm)
iontu(san) annta(san) ayndaue(syn) in them

Examples:

  • Bean mhaith tí atá inti = She's a good housewife (GE)
  • Tá measarthacht airde iontu = They are fairly tall (GE)
  • Seo a' phoit, cuir an tì innte = Here's the pot, put the tea in it (GA)
  • Is e sgrìobhadair a th' annam = I am a writer (GA)
  • Denee mee my chassyn lhoobey foym = I felt my legs give way beneath me (GV)
  • Doshil y thalloo foin = The ground gave way under us (GV)

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With

GE GA GV EN
le le lesh with
liom(sa) leam(sa) lhiam(s) with me
leat(sa) leat(sa) lhiat(s) with you (sg)
leis(san) leis(san) lesh(syn) with him
léi(se) leatha(se) lhee(ish) with her
linn(e) leinn(e) lhien(yn) with us
libh(se) leibh(se) lhiu(ish) with you (pl/frm)
leo(san) leotha(san) lhieu(syn) with them

Examples:

  • An bhfuil tú linn nó inár n-éadan? = Are you for us or against us? (GE)
  • Tá muid ar aon intinn leo = We are of the same opinion as them (GE)
  • 'S ann leatsa a tha e = It's belongs to you (GA)
  • An tèid thu leam? = Will you go with me? (GA)
  • Lhig lhien eh = Let him come with us (GV)
  • Cha noddym jannoo lhee = I can't stand her (can't be having with her) (GV)

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From

GE GA GV EN
ó o/bho voish from
uaim(sa) (bh)uam(sa) voym(s) from me
uait(sa) (bh)uat(sa) voyd(s) from you (sg)
uaidh(san) (bh)uaithe(san) voish(syn) from him
uaithi(se) (bh)uaipe(se) voee(ish) from her
uainn(e) (bh)uainn(e) voin(yn) from us
uaibh(se) (bh)uaibh(se) veue(ish) from you (pl/frm)
uathu(san) (bh)uapa(san) voue(syn) from them

Examples:

  • Tá ochtapas uaim = I need an octopus (GE)
  • Ugam agus Bhuam = To Me and from Me (GA)
  • Fada bhuaibh = Far from you (GA)
  • Cha dod mee tayrn mee hene ersooyl voish = I couldn't tear myself away from it (GV)
  • Ghow eh ersooyl eh voym = He took it away from me (GV)

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Through

GE GA GV EN
trí troimh trooid through
tríom(sa) tromhan(sa) my hrooid through me
tríot(sa) tromhad(sa) dty hrooid through you (sg)
tríd(san) troimhe(san) ny hrooid through him
tríthi(se) troimpe(se) ny trooid through her
thrínn(e) tromhainn(e) my hrooid through us
tríbh(se) tromhaibh(se) nyn drooid through you (pl/frm)
tríothu(san) tromhpa(san) nyn drooid through them

Examples:

  • Hug eh cliwe ny hrooid = He ran a sword through him (GV)
  • Woaill ad nyn drooid y chionnal = They forced their way through the crowd (GV)

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Around

GE GA GV EN
um mu mygeayrt around
umam(sa) umam(sa) mygeayrt aym around me
umat(sa) umad(sa) mygeayrt ayd around you (sg)
uime(san) uime(san) mygeayrt echey around him
uimpi(se) uimpe(se) mygeayrt eck around her
umainn(e) umainn(e) mygeayrt ain around us
umaibh(se) umaibh(se) mygeayrt eu around you (pl/frm)
umpu(san) umpa(san) mygeayrt oc around them

Examples:

  • Cuir umad do chòta = Put your coat on (about you) (GA)
  • Chuir i uimpe = She got dressed (GA)

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Before

GE GA GV EN
roimh roimh roish before
romham(sa) romham(sa) roym(s) before me
romhat(sa) romhad(sa) royd(s) before you (sg)
roimhe(san) roimhe(san) roish(yn) before him
roimpi(se) roimpe(se) roee(ish) before her
romhainn(e) romhainn(e) roin(yn) before us
romhaibh(se) romhaibh(se) reue(ish) before you (pl/frm)
rompu(san) rompa(san) roue(syn) before them

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Examples:

  • Loic sé roimhe = He shrank from it (GE)
  • Choisich sinn romhainn = We walked along/on (before ourselves) (GA)
  • Bha eagal air roimhpe = He was afraid of her (GA)
  • Bee jerrey jeant aym royd = I 'll have finished before you (GV)
  • Er oai lhiat roym = You go on ahead of me (GV)

Over

GE GA GV EN
thar thar coar over
tharam(sa) tharum(sa) harrym(s) over me
tharat(sa) tharad(sa) harryd(s) over you (sg)
thairis(san) thairis air harrish(yn) over him
thairsti(se) thairis oirre harree(ish) over her
tharainn(e) tharainn(e) harrin(yn) over us
tharaibh(se) tharaibh(se) harriu(ish) over you (pl/frm)
tharstu(san) tharta(san) harroo(syn) over them

Examples:

  • Ní chuirfinn tharstu é = I wouldn't put it past them (GE)
  • T'eh mooaralagh harrym = He is lording it over me (GV)
  • Huitt eh harroo = It fell over them (GV)

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Between

GE GA GV EN
idir eadar eddyr between
eadrainn(e) eadarainn(e) eddyr ain between us
eadraibh(se) eadaraibh(se) eddyr eu between you (pl/frm)
eatarthu(san) eatarra(san) eddyr oc between them

Examples:

  • D'éirigh eatarthu = They fell out (GE)
  • Thàinig i eadrarainn = She came between us (GA)
  • A bheil dotair eadaraibh? = Is there a doctor among you? (GA)

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Next to / Along with / Besides

GE GA GV EN
fara farradh marish along with
faram(sa) faram(sa) marym(s) along with me
farat(sa) farat(sa) mayrt(s) along with you (sg)
fairis(san) faradh(san) marish(yn) along with him
farae(se) faraiste(se) maree(ish) along with her
farainn(e) farainn(e) marin(yn) along with us
faraibh(se) faraibh(se) meriu(ish) along with you (pl/frm)
faru(san) fara(san) maroo(syn) along with them

Examples:

  • Bhí sé faru = He was with them (GE)

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To / Against / Towards / With

GA GV EN
ri rish to/against
rium(sa) rhym(s) to me
riut(sa) rhyt(s) to you (sg)
ris(san) rish(yn) to him
rithe(se) ree(ish) to her
rinn(e) rooin(yn) to us
ribh(se) riu(ish) to you (pl/frm)
riutha(san) roo(syn) to them

This preposition was used in Old Irish but is no longer used in Modern Irish. Le is used instead.

Examples:

  • Tha mi a' bruidhinn ruibh = I'm talking to you (GA)
  • Dhealaich sinn riutha = We parted from them (GA)
  • Cha nel eh rieau er loayrt rhym = He has never spoken to me (GV)
  • Cha row y speyr coardail rhym = The climate disagreed with me (GV)

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By/Beside

GV EN
liorish by
liorym(s) by me
liort(s) by you (sg)
liorish(yn) by him
lioree(ish) by her
liorin(yn) by us
lieriu(ish) by you (pl/frm)
lioroo(syn) by them

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Examples

  • Screeuyn y chur liorish chaghter = Send a letter by hand
  • Skeabit ersooyl liorish yn tidey = Washed away by the tide
  • T'ad shiaulley liorish ny rollageyn = They go by the stars
  • T'eh gobbragh liorish gaal = It works by steam
  • Ta enney aym er liorish loaghtey = I know it by touch
  • Ta mee fakin liorish yn eddin ayd dy ren oo coayl = I gather from your face that you lost
  • V'eh currit jeh'n choorse echey liorish y gheay = He was driven off his course by the wind
  • V'eh er ny lhieggey liorish gleashtan = He was knocked down by a car

Sources

http://www.irishpage.com/quiz/preppron.htm
http://www.nualeargais.ie/gnag/praepro.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scottish_Gaelic_grammar
http://www.isle-of-man.com/manxnotebook/manxsoc/msvol02/chap20.htm
http://www.cairnwater.co.uk/gaelicdictionary/

Brythonic prepositional pronouns (Breton, Cornish & Welsh)

Other Celtic language pages


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