Prepositional pronouns in the Brythonic languages

When pronouns and prepositions are combined they have special forms in the Brythonic languages. Or in other words, the prepositions conjugate for person and number.

The Cornish forms shown here are in the Standard Written Form (Furv Skrifys Savonek).

The formal and informal versions of the Welsh prepositions are given here. The main difference is that the formal versions have no accompanying pronouns.

In Breton the 3rd person plural ending -o, which is used in literary language and in Leon, is -e in other areas.

Key to abbreviations

BR = Breton (Brezhoneg), KE = Cornish (Kernewek) CY = Welsh (Cymraeg), EN = English, sg = singular, pl = plural, frm = formal.

Contents

about/for, between, beyond, by, in, on, out (of), through, to(wards), under, with, without


About / for / of

BR KE CY EN
a a am at
ac'hanon ahanav amdanaf
amdana i
about me
ac'hanout ahanas amdanat
amdanat ti
about you (sg)
anezhañ anodho amdano
amdano fe/fo
about him
anezhi ahedhi amdani
amdani hi
about her
ac'hanomp ahanen amdanom
amdanon ni
about us
ac'hanoc'h ahanowgh amdanoch
amdanoch chi
about you (pl/frm)
anezho anedhans amdanynt
amdanyn nhw
about them

Examples

  • Yth eson ni omma dhe gowsel a'th ober. = We're here to talk about your work. (KE)
  • Yma own dhodho a'gas ki. = He's afraid of your dog (KE)
  • Dw i'n meddwl amdanat ti = I'm thinking of you (CY)
  • Dych chi'n mynd i aros amdana i? = Are you going to wait for me? (CY)

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Between / Among

BR KE CY EN
etre yntra / ynter rhwng between
yntredhov
yntredham
rhyngddaf
rhyngdda i
between me
yntredhos rhyngddat
rhyngddat ti
between you (sg)
yntredho rhyngddo
rhyngddo fo/fe
between him
yntredhi rhyngddi
rhyngddi hi
between her
etrezomp yntredhon rhyngddom
rhyngddon ni
between us
etrezoc'h yntredhowgh rhyngddoch
rhyngddoch chi
between you (pl/frm)
etrezo yntredhans rhyngddynt
rhyngddyn nhw
between them

Examples

  • Er stourm etrezoc'h-c'hwi hag ar bed, savit a-du gant ar bed. = In a fight between you and the world, you'd support the world. (BR)
  • Yn ystod ei chyfnod yn y garej datblygodd perthynas agos iawn rhyngddi hi a Derek. = During her time in the garage a very close relationship developed between her and Derek. (CY)
  • Parc Maesteg oedd enillwyr y gêm rhyngddyn nhw â Thon Pentre. = Maesteg Park were the winners of the game between them and Ton Pentre. (CY)

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Beyond, across, over

BR KE CY EN
dreist dres dros beyond
dreiston
driest din
dresov drostof
drosto i
beyond me
dreistout
driest dit
dresos drostot
drostot ti
beyond you (sg)
dreistañ
driest dezhañ
dresto drosto
drosto fo/fe
beyond him
dreisti
driest dezhi
dresti drosti
drosti hi
beyond her
dreistomp
driest dimp
dreson drostom
droston ni
beyond us
dreistoc'h
driest deoc'h
dresowgh drostoch
drostoch chi
beyond you (pl/frm)
dreisto
driest dezho
drestans drostynt
drostyn nhw
beyond them

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By, at, beside

BR KE CY EN
(di)ouzh orth wrth by
(di)ouzhin orth
ortham
wrthaf
wrtha i
by me
(di)ouzhit orthis wrthat
wrthat ti
by you (sg)
(di)outañ orto wrtho
wrtho fo/fe
by him
(di)outi orti wrthi
wrthi hi
by her
(di)ouzhimp orthyn wrthom
wrthon ni
by us
(di)ouzhoc'h orthowgh wrthoch
wrthoch chi
by you (pl/frm)
(di)outo
(di)oute
ortans wrthynt
wrthyn nhw
by them

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In

BR KE CY EN
en yn yn at
ennon ynnov yn(dd)af
yn(dd)a i
in me
ennout ynnos yn(dd)at
yn(dd)at ti
in you (sg)
ennañ ynno yn(dd)o
yn(dd)o fe/fo
in him
enni ynni yn(dd)i
yn(dd)i hi
in her
ennomp ynnon yn(dd)om
yn(dd)on ni
in us
ennoc'h ynnowgh yn(dd)och
yn(dd)och chi
in you (pl/frm)
enne/enno ynnans yn(dd)ynt
yn(dd)yn nhw
in them

Alternative forms of the Welsh words which include the dd, e.g. yndda i, ynddat ti, etc, and other change the a to o, e.g. yno i, ynot ti, etc.

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On

BR KE CY EN
war war ar on
warnon warnav
warnam
arnaf
arna i
on me
warnout warnas arnat
arnat ti
on you (sg)
warnañ
warnezhañ
warnodho arno
arno fo/fe
on him
warni
warnezhi
warnedhi arni
arni hi
on her
warnomp warnan arnom
arnon ni
on us
warnoc'h warowgh arnoch
arnoch chi
on you (pl/frm)
warno
warnezho
warnedhans arnynt
arnyn nhw
on them

Notes

  • In Welsh ar is followed by a soft mutation, e.g. ar fwrdd y gegin (on the kitchen table).

Examples

  • Wyt ti'n gwrando arna i? = Are you listening to me? (cy)
  • Maen nhw'n edrych arnon ni = They're looking at us (cy)

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Out of / from / off

BR KE CY EN
a dhyworth o out of / from / off
ac'hanon dhyworthiv ohonaf
ohona i
from me
ac'hanout dhyworthis ohonat
ohonat ti
from you (sg)
anezhañ dhyworto ohono
ohono fe/fo
from him
anezhi dhyworty ohoni
ohoni hi
from her
ac'hanomp dhyworthyn ohonom
ohonon ni
from us
ac'hanoc'h dhyworthowgh ohonoch
ohonoch chi
from you (pl/frm)
anezho dhywortans ohonynt
ohonyn nhw
from them

Examples:

  • Pwy ohonoch chi sy wedi talu yn barod? = Which of you has paid already? (CY)
  • Beth sy'n atgoffa ti ohona i? = What reminds you of me? (CY)

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Through / by

BR KE CY EN
dre dre drwy through
drezon dredhov drwyddaf
drwydda i
through me
drezout dredhos drwyddat
drwyddat ti
through you (sg)
drezañ dredho drwyddo
drwyddo fo/fe
through him
drezi dredhi drwyddi
drwyddi hi
through her
drezomp drehon drwyddom
drwyddon ni
through us
drezoc'h dredhowgh drwyddoch
drwyddoch chi
through you (pl/frm)
drezor dredhans drwyddynt
drwyddyn nhw
through them

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To / Towards

BR KE CY EN
da dhe i to / towards
din dhybm imi
i mi/fi
to me
dit dhis iti
i ti
to you (sg)
dezhañ dhodho iddo
iddo fo/fe
to him
dezhi dhedhy iddi
iddi hi
to her
deomp
dimp
dhyn inni
i ni
to us
deoc'h dhywgh ichi
i chi
to you (pl/frm)
dezho dhedhans iddynt
iddyn nhw
to them

Notes

  • In Welsh i is followed by a soft mutation, e.g. dw i'n mynd i fangor (I'm going to Bangor).

Examples

  • Dw i'n ysgrifennu iddi hi = I'm writing to her (CY)
  • Mae geno fo anrheg iddyn nhw = He has a present for them (CY)

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Under

BR KE CY EN
dindan yn-dann dan under
dinanon yn-dannov danaf
dana i
under me
dindanout yn-dannos danat
danat ti
under you (sg)
dindanañ yn-danno dano
dano fo/fe
under him
dindani yn-danni dani
dani hi
under her
dindanomp yn-dannon danom
danon ni
under us
dindanoc'h yn-dannowgh danoch
danoch chi
under you (pl/frm)
dindano yn-dannans danynt
danyn nhw
under them

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With

As well as many with, this preposition is used to indicate possession.

BR KE CY EN
gant gans gan / gyda with
ganin genev
genam
gennaf
gen i
gyda fi
with me
ganit genes gennat
gen ti
gyda ti
with you (sg)
gantañ ganso gennof
gynno fo
gyda fe
with him
ganti gensi genni
gynni hi
gyda hi
with her
ganeomp
ganimp
genen gennom
gynnon ni
gyda ni
with us
ganeoc'h genowgh gennoch
gynnoch chi
gyda chi
with you (pl/frm)
ganto gansans gennynt
gynnyn nhw
gyda nhw
with them

Notes

  • The formal, northern and southern variants of the Welsh prepositions are given here. There is quite a bit of regional variation in their forms: for example gen i is gyn i or gin i in some areas, and gyda is often shortened to 'da.
  • When used to indicate possession the northern variants usually come before the thing possessed, while the southern variants come after. For example: mae gen i ci (north) = mae ci 'da fi (south) = I have a dog.
  • In negative sentences various abbreviations are used: e.g. does gen i ddim ci (I don't have a dog) becomes sgen i ci, and does dim ci 'da fi becomes sdim ci 'da fi.

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Without

BR KE CY EN
hep heb heb without
hepdon hebov
hebam
hebddaf
hebdda i
without me
hepdout hebos hebddat
hebddat ti
without you (sg)
heptañ hebdho hebddo
hebddo fo/fe
without him
hepti hebdhi hebddi
hebddi hihi
without her
hepdomp hebon hebddom
hebddon ni
without us
hepdoc'h hebowgh hebddoch
hebddoch chi
without you (pl/frm)
hepto hebdhans hebddynt
hebddyn nhw
without them

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Links

Cornish prepositions
http://www.cornishgrammar.com/?n=Prepositions.SimplePrepositions

Gaelic prepositional pronouns (Irish, Manx & Scottish Gaelic)

Other Celtic language pages


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