فهذه الكلمة من المفروض أن تُكتب "رَأَيْتُ".
Yup, as far as I know.
I once heard that the colloquial Arabic of Damascus is more like the Arabic in the Qur'an than any other colloquial variety. Is there any truth to this?
In fact, eastern dialects are supposed to be closer to Qur'anic Arabic because they usually respect (and pronounce) vowel patterns and don't drop so many vowels as western dialects. But I think none of them is considered as actually closer to Qur'anic Arabic than any other because there are a lot of diversity in the lexicon as well. BTW, I've also heard that about Iraqi Arabic.