LESSON 3: VERBS AND VOCABULARYLESSON 3A: VOCABULARY
Before we get into the verbs of Duojjin, I'm going to introduce a few simple vocabulary words so we've got something to work with for example sentences.
say: puhu / jjin
cat: mirri (because everybody loves kitties. =^.^=)LESSON 3B: VERBS
For the most part, verbs are always the last word of a Duojjin sentence. However, due to Duojjin's flexible sentence order (which I'll get into in a later lesson), adverbs are allowed to be placed after the verb they modify instead of before it, but normally they're placed before, so verbs are normally the last word in a sentence.
In Duojjin, any noun can become a verb by adding the appropriate verb suffix. Even adjectives can be verbs. There are also several verb-only words like go (åjaa), or come (tulla). You can even apply more than one verb suffix to the end of a verb.
Verbs are inflected for tense, progression, and positive/negative.
There are two kinds of verbs in Duojjin. Do verbs and Be verbs. A verb is created merely by applying the appropriate suffix to the word that you want to verbify. Positive TO DO Verb Suffixes:
Present Tense: (ihi)n / (i)han / te / nå :: Progressive: ihun
Past Tense: nen / lin / ke :: Progressive: nun / lun
Future Tense: (j)ar / aks / kor :: Progressive: jupi/uks
Tenseless: (n)ön / maa / ska / ihin :: Progressive: njyyNegative TO DO Verb Suffixes:
Present Tense: (ö)hyön / skin / hinå :: Progressive: ihen(t)
Past Tense: (n)än / lan / kön :: Progressive: nån
Future Tense: jäki / äks / rök(t) :: Progressive: jåa
Tenseless: nein / mån / (ö)škör :: Progressive: nöin
Yes, "ihin" is supposed to be there twice. The present tense can be used for the infinitive (but only the ihin form), and the h cannot be elided when doing so. Not really done that often.
You'll notice that several of the letters in the chart above are in brackets. These bracketed letters can be elided at the discretion of the speaker. The general rule is suffixes that begin with a vowel (but only the ones in brackets) elide the initial vowel if the word it is attached to ends in a vowel, and suffixes that begin with consonants (but only the ones in brackets) are elided if the word it is attached to ends in a consonant. You'll notice that the first form of present tense positive has three letters contained within brackets. This is because ihin can be shortened to hin, and also to in, and also to just n. Once again, this is all entirely at the discretion of the speaker (you'll note this as a recurring motif throughout Duojjin inflection).
You'll also notice there are a variety of forms for each tense, separated by slashes. It is, once again, at the discretion of the speaker (or writer) to decide which form to use at any given time. There are a few reasons for this. Duojjin verbs are really rather simple, and without a variety of forms would result in almost every sentence ending in a very small variety of ways. Also, Duojjin's optional inflection "system" tries to keep music in mind. Several of these inflections (and abbreviations which I suppose I'll have to get to in a later lesson) are in place for the sake of Duojjin being able to fit and follow well with a melody, as Duojjin sentences can have a tendency to be rather syllable heavy. It's also for the sake of my own personal messed up sense of vowel and consonant harmony, and others' personal messed up sense of vowel and consonant harmony; I like the idea of speakers being able to choose whichever form works for them. Perhaps a form which I find difficult to say, someone else may find easier.
Before we move on to the TO BE verb suffixes, I'll show you how these are used to make verbs. Just keep in mind that the performer of any verb is always attached to the verb, separated by an apostrophe, with the performer on the left of the apostrophe. The entire word encompassing a verb, including the attached performer and/or suffix(es), is counted as one verb word. I'll come back to this after a few examples.full word duojjin || components duojjin == components english == full word english
tullahin || tulla + hin == come + do(PresPos) == come
hän'tullahun || hän + tulla + hun == s/he + come + do(PresPosProg) == s/he is coming -or- s/he is on their way
sei'åjaanun || sei + åjaa + nun == I + go + do(PastNeg) == I did not go
kyrrhessa'puhumaa || kyrrh + essa + puhu + maa == person + nom. plural + say + do(InftvPos) = people saySome full sentence examples:
Tele tullahin. || tele tulla + hin == here come + do(PresPos) == Come here.
Tele hän'tullahun. || tele hän + tulla + hun == here s/he + come + do(PresPosProg) == S/He is coming here. -or- S/He is on their way.
Siita sei'åjaanun. || siita sei + åjaa + nun == there I + go + do(PastNeg) == I did not go there.
Kyrrhessa'tojjinnön. || kyrrh + essa + to + jjin + nön == person + nom. plural + that(adverbial prefix) + say + do(Inftv+Pos) = People say that.
Siita hän'åjaaar || siita hän + åjaa + jar == there s/he + go + do (FutrPos) == S/He will go there.
This is what I meant when I said the whole verb counts as one word. The sentence "Tele hän'tullahin" counts as two words, not three. "hän'tullahin" is the verb. "Tele" is the object. Tele could be further specified with noun cases, but these are simple sentences, and as such they're ultimately unnecessary, and do not have to be included. However, for purposes of word length the word to either side of the apostrophe are counted separately. For example, "sei'åjaanön" does not count as being a longer word than "tullanun." Because the "sei" in "sei'åjaanön" doesn't count for word length. For the record, the longest word in Duojjin so far (that I know of) is "pälläkeivaheisessaešška," which means "by the aggressors."
You'll notice that the bottom half of the above examples are labeled as "full sentences." However, some of the top half example words like, well, all of them, can count as a legal full sentence in Duojjin.
The TO BE verbs function in the same way as the TO DO verbs, except they mean be instead of do. Obviously. Positive TO BE Verb Suffixes:
Present Tense: (m)ei / sa / to :: Progressive: miin / kiin
Past Tense: men / sen / ten / ŋ :: Progressive: mun
Future Tense: jäpi / po / rä / tyr :: Progressive: jeirpo
Tenseless: mus / mei / mat / ci(k) :: Progressive: mosNegative TO BE Verb Suffixes:
Present Tense: (m)eiä / myr / mjå :: Progressive: meiå
Past Tense: (m)äl / jem / tra :: Progressive: mål
Future Tense: ko / kra / tråa :: Progressive: krå
Tenseless: mäs / met / trell :: Progressive: mås
Yes, "mei" is supposed to be there twice. The present tense can be used for the infinitive (but only the mei form), and the m cannot be elided when doing so. Done much more commonly with the TO BE verbs than with the TO DO verbs.
To conclude this lesson on Duojjin verbs, I'll throw you a few more example sentences with the vocabulary we've learned so far.
Oh, and I just remembered. I forgot to include the possessive suffix in the pronouns lesson. The possessive suffix is -na. (seina, teina, hänna, deina, etc.) The possessive suffix comes before plurals (seinaessa, teinaessa, hännaessa, deinaessa, etc. Could be inflected to seinassa, teinassa, hännassa, deinassa, etc.). In Duojjin, words regarding possession or ownership are never expressed with a TO BE verb form because, from a Duojjin mindset, possession and ownership are things that we do, not things that are.
Sei'mirrici. || sei + mirri + cik == I + cat + is(InftvPos) == I am (a) cat.
Tamirri'seinan. || ta + mirri + sei + na + hin == this(prefix) + cat + I + possessive + do(PresInftvPos) == This is my cat. (could also be "Jatta mirri'seinamei.")
Jotta hän'puhulan. || jotta hän + puhu + lan == that s/he + say + do(PastNeg) == S/he didn't say that. (could also be "Hän'topuhulan.")
Tahuomei. || ta + huo + mei == this(prefix) + house + is(PresPos) == It's this house.
Dei'seinalin, ii'teinahin. = dei + sei + na + lin , ii + tei + na + hin == it + I + possessive + do(PastPos) , it + you + possessive + do(PresPos) == It was mine, it is (now) yours.