I have a question: In most languages I know, you ask someone their name by saying, essentially, 'What do you call yourself' or 'What are you called', or even 'How are you called'.
Why in English is it directly 'What is your name'?
In my experience, both forms are widespread. Asking why a particular language prefers one to the other is like asking why a particular language prefers a synthetic past tense to an analytic one or "Good bye!" to "See you!"
Other languages which use "What is your name?" or a close equivalent:Irish
: Cad is ainm duit? ("What is name to-you?")Welsh
: Beth yw d'enw di? ("What is your name you?")Korean
: 당신의 성함은 무엇입니까? ("Your[*] name what is?")Vietnamese
: Tên anh là gì? ("Name elder-brother[*] is what?")Arabic
(Lebanese): Shu ismak? ("What name-your?")Hindi
: आप का नाम क्या है? ("self's name what is?") Persian
: اسمتان چيست? ("Name-your what is?")
That's just off the top of my head; there are many many more.
[*] Many possibilities here but this isn't a lesson in Asian honorifics and pronominal systems.