For the layman:
• Syntax is basically the same thing as grammar. Word placement, tenses, etc etc.
• Lexicon is the vocabulary of a language.
• Morphology is more or less how a language sounds. Morphemes are generally syllables that appear in the language.
There are lots of languages out there that use the Latin alphabet even though they're derived from something else. For example, around half of the Slavic languages use the Latin alphabet instead of the Cyrillic alphabet.
Often, language families are centered around a specific region. If you don't know what family a country's language is in, it's probably in the same group as the languages of the countries around it.
I'd probably expand my language learning quite a bit if I didn't have to learn a new alphabet. There was a day where I spent the whole time studying the Old Cyrillic alphabet. After that, every word in English looked weird. Like it didn't belong. So confusing.
I must apologize for dragging the thread slightly off-topic. On a more related note, I'm sort of tentatively learning Cantonese. I can order cake!
Okay, that has really helped when i try to read Grammer books and such. Thanks!
My list changes weekly (Not on purpose)
Today it is:
-Klingon. Nerdy and pointless i know, but i am learning it nonetheless.
-German. I have a lot of friends who are German, so that is a huge factor.
-Latin. It is required to take foeign language in my high school (yes i am in school) so i am starting that next year.