Experimental Conlang A: A conlang in progress

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Re: Experimental Conlang A: A conlang in progress

Postby Dan_ad_nauseam » Thu 16 Jun 2011 1:20 am

As noted above, two consecutive vowels separated by a null infix do not diphthongize or lengthen; instead, they cause epenthesis of a glottal stop.

jyff-a-p θ-[0]-aigna-[0]-ʔalh-a-bn-ai-e:st
3d masc.-sing.-nom. masc.-[sing.]-run-[3d]-masc.-sing.-past-perf.-obs.

He had run. (I saw.)

jyff -i-θata-ks t-w-aʃi-[0]-ʔalh-i-bn-[0]-iniʃ
3d masc.-pauc.-refl.-ess. neut.-pauc.-hear-[3d]-masc.-pauc.-past-[indic.]-rat.

They (masc., fewer than five) heard. (I surmise.)
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Re: Experimental Conlang A: A conlang in progress

Postby Dan_ad_nauseam » Mon 20 Jun 2011 12:37 am

Syntax:

SOV with postpositions.

Direct and indirect objects are ordered according to topical significance. If neither is topical, the indirect object comes first.

steff-a-ku
1st masc.-sing-iness.

θ- eʔ- pɹi:-θ-a-tl,
masc.-sing.-bottle-masc.-sing.-acc.

θ- eʔ- jyp-a-ks
masc.-sing.-3d fem.-sing-ess.

p- eʔ-nev-εp-alh-a-bn,-[0]-pɹai
fem.-sing-give-1st-masc.-sing.-past-[indic.]-partic.

I gave her the bottle.

steff-a-ku
1st masc.-sing-iness.

θ- eʔ-jyp-a-ks
masc.-sing.-3d fem.-sing.-ess.

θ- eʔ-pɹi:-θ-a-tl,
masc.-sing.-bottle-masc.-sing.-acc.

θ-ε-nev-εp-alh-a-bn,-[0]-pɹai
masc.-sing.-give-1st-masc.-sing.-past-[indic.]-partic.

I gave her the bottle. (With possible emphasis on “bottle.”)
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Re: Experimental Conlang A: A conlang in progress

Postby Dan_ad_nauseam » Sat 25 Jun 2011 2:13 am

OSV is used for passive tense without other marking.

stuk-p-a-mi
house-fem.-sing.-ess.

p- eʔ-dʒεp-atw-i-tl,
fem.-sing.-cat-(neut.)-pl.-acc.

t-iʔ-fɹi-p-a-st
neut.-pl.-girl-fem.-sing.-nom.

p- eʔ-nof-lul-a-bn-apu-ʃi
fem.-sing.-take-fem.-sing.-past-prog.-aur.

sun
completed motion

The (many) cats were being carried home by the girl, and arrived. (I heard it.)

As seen above, the particle [sun] indicates that a motion reaches the intended destination.
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Re: Experimental Conlang A: A conlang in progress

Postby Dan_ad_nauseam » Sun 26 Jun 2011 9:21 pm

In the subjunctive, elliptical construction is favored and rational evidential markers are common.

dʒεnta-θ-a-st
Jenta-(masc.)-sing.-nom.

θ -eʔ-dos-tefto-wıvi
masc.-sing.-comp.-fast-manner

aigna-[0]-ʔalh-a-bn-ai-niʃ
run-masc.-sing.-past-perf.-rat.

sıgoka-p-a-taub
race-fem.-sing.-acc.

p- eʔ-p^lz-fl-alh-a-bn-apu-niʃ
fem.-sing.-win-subj.- masc.-sing.-past-perf.-rat.

sun
completed motion

If Jenta had run faster, he would have won the race.
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Re: Experimental Conlang A: A conlang in progress

Postby Dan_ad_nauseam » Sat 02 Jul 2011 3:14 am

Dependent clauses have a switch reference, which defaults to the subject. The particle [xi] switches to direct object and [ji] to indirect object.

jyff-a-p
3d masc.-sing.-nom.

θ-eʔ-d^d-ap-a-ŋ
masc.-sing.-tree-fem.-sing.-ess.

p-eʔ-ʃιka- ʔalh-a-bn,-wik
fem.-sing.-cut-masc.-sing.-past-rep.

tum-tw-i-m
wood-neut.-pl.-instr.

t-iʔ-flez-adw-a-n
neut.-pl.-boat-neut.-sing.-ess.

t-eʔ-zæm-alh-a-bn,-wik
neut.-sing.-make-masc.-sing.-past-rep.

He cut the tree and made a boat with the wood. (I was told.)

jyff-a-p
3d masc.-sing.-nom.

θ-eʔ-d^d-ap-a-ŋ
masc.-sing.-tree-fem.-sing.-ess.

p-eʔ-ʃιka-ʔalh-a-bn-e:st
fem.-sing.-cut-masc.-sing.-past-vis.

xi
switch dir.

fιnni-lul-a-bn-e:st
fall-fem.-sing.-past-vis.

sun
completed motion

He cut the tree and it fell to the ground. (I saw.)

jyff-a-ku
3d masc.-sing.-iness.

θ-eʔ-ne-p-a-tl,
masc.-sing-gift-fem.-sing.-acc.

p-eʔ-jyp-a-ks
fem.-sing.-3d fem.-sing.-ess.

p-eʔ-nev-alh-a-bn,-wik
fem.-sing.-give-masc.-sing.-past.-rep.

ji
switch indir.

seha-lul-a-bn-apu-e:st
blush-fem.-sing.-past-perf.-vis.

He gave her a gift (I heard) and she was blushing (I saw).
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Re: Experimental Conlang A: A conlang in progress

Postby Dan_ad_nauseam » Sun 03 Jul 2011 4:32 am

Polar questions are marked by the particle [tau].

dɹaip-a-θata-p
2d fem.-sing.-refl.-nom.

p-[0]-ælt-i-lul-a-ŋ-apu-wik
fem.-[sing.]-hungry-2d-fem.-sing.-pres.-prog.-rep.

tau
polar question

Are you (fem. sing.) hungry?
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Re: Experimental Conlang A: A conlang in progress

Postby Dan_ad_nauseam » Mon 04 Jul 2011 4:14 am

Wh- questions substitute according to class without pied-piping:

za:-p (who): Pronoun, defaults to neuter
zεð-p (what): Pronoun, defaults to masc.
azi (which): Adjective
ozu (how many): Adjective
zum (when): Adverb
zau (where): Adverb
zen (why): Adverb
zal (how): Adverb

jypp-a-p
3d fem.-sing.-nom.

p-eʔ-za:-dw-a-d
fem.-sing.-who-neut.-sing.-acc.

t-ezd-i-lul-a-bn,-wik
neut.-see-2d-fem.-sing.-past-rep.

She saw whom?

θen-θ-a-to
man-masc.-sing.-nom.

θ-ozu-p-i
masc.- how many-fem. (pol.)-pl.

mwe-p-i-tai
road-fem. (pol.)-pl.-trans.

p-iʔ-sεθ-hab-alh-a-ŋ-aniʃ
fem. (pol.)-pl.-walk-oblig.-masc.-sing.-pres.-rat.

sun
completed motion

auf-tw-a-p
impers.-neut.-sing.-nom.

t-eʔ-jyff-a-ks
neut.-sing.-3d masc.-sing.-ess.

θ- eʔ-θen-a-tl,
masc.-sing.-man-sing.-acc.

θ-eʔ-wılt-fl,-h-a-k-iva-niʃ
masc.-sing.-qualify-subj.-neut.-sing-near fut.-habit.-rat.

tʃaf
before

How many roads must a man walk down before you call him a man?
(Needless to say, this doesn’t scan to the original.)
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Re: Experimental Conlang A: A conlang in progress

Postby Dan_ad_nauseam » Mon 04 Jul 2011 7:11 pm

Negation is marked by the particle [twe] after the verb:

steff-a-p
1st masc.-sing.-nom.

θ-eʔ-fυti-εl-alh-a-ŋ-iva-e:st
masc.-sing.-dumb-1st-masc.-sing.-hab.-vis.

twe
neg.

du
and

steff-a-p
1st masc.-sing.-nom.

θ-eʔ-seŋiff-εl-alh-a-ŋ-iva-e:st
masc.-sing.-expendable-1st-masc.-sing.-hab.-vis.

twe
neg.

du
and

steff-a-p
1st masc.-sing.-nom.

θ-eʔ-kænn-vi-εl-alh-a-k-apu-e:st
masc.-sing.-go-intent.-1st-masc.-sing.-near fut.-prog.-vis.

twe
neg.

I’m (masc.) not dumb, I’m not expendable, and I’m not going.

A related adjective [twi] can negate nouns in otherwise affirmative sentences, with an emphatic effect. It appears before the affected noun. If the object is negated, reinforcing prefixes attach to [twi]:

twi mınzo-θ-a-g
Neg. Minzo-masc.-sing.-nom.

θ-ε-nai-alh-a-bn,-ʃi
masc.-sing.-answer-masc.-sing.-past-aur.

It was not Minzo who answered. (I heard it.)

mınzo-θ-a-g
Minzo-masc.-sing.nom

θ-ε-twi
masc.-sing.-neg.

jyff-a-ks
2d masc.-sing-ess./dat.

θ-ε-nai-alh-a-bn,-ʃi
masc.-sing.-answer-masc.-sing.-past-aur.

It was not him that Minzo answered. (I heard.)

[twi-] also can be used to build negative indefinite pronouns, in which case it functions as a prefix:

twi-auf-tw-a-p
neg.-impers-neut.-sing.-nom.

t- eʔ-stuk-ap-a-sεt
neut.-sing.-house-fem.-sing.-loc.

p- eʔ-kima-h-a-ŋ-e:st
fem.-sing.-stand.-neut.-sing,-pres.-vis.

Nobody’s home.
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Re: Experimental Conlang A: A conlang in progress

Postby Dan_ad_nauseam » Wed 06 Jul 2011 2:53 am

Lexical features:

A modified Swadesh list is in development and will be posted when completed.

Many words related to seafaring and oceanic flora and fauna are borrowed or calqued, usually from English or French, which I project as the first languages with relevant vocabulary that the speakers of Conlang A interact with with any frequency.

Examples:

whale
we:l-p (anim) (a loanword from English)

starfish
e:tapotl,-to (anim) (a calque from English)

wave (n)
vag-m (f) (A loanword from French)

Words may be formed by simple compounds and kennings:

gɹes-p
hair

klo-p
chin

gɹesklof-p
beard

oʔi
fly

fju-p
flower

oʔifju-p
butterfly

Common derivational affixes:

[kan-]
Frequentative

[-bal]
Composition, converts noun to stative

[-wıvi]
Manner, converts statives and adjectives to adverbs

[se-]
Capability

[sa-]
Product

bitt-to
tongue

sabitt-to
language

[-i]
Agentive

[-a:]
Comparative

[-gai]
Superlative

[-ni:]
Diminutive
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Re: Experimental Conlang A: A conlang in progress

Postby Dan_ad_nauseam » Sat 09 Jul 2011 2:33 am

The number system is vigesimal.
Ordinals are irregular for one and two and constructed with [-ki] for higher numbers.

Cardinals:

one hau
two pen
three kæp
four ko
five tʃaŋa
six name
seven pılt
eight jenn
nine lafa
ten mol
eleven molhau
twenty lad
thirty ladmol
forty penilad
fifty peniladmol
sixty kæplad
seventy kæpladmol
eighty jenilad
ninety jeniladmol
hundred θio
thousand fima

Ordinals:

first pai
second hobεn
third kæpki
fourth koki
etc.
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