I haven't figured out other tenses and stuff, but this is basically how it works in the language I'm doing! Also, I realize that e/eno/eto/etc. kind of works as a pronoun, but it's required every time a verb is used, even if the sentence already has a noun, so it's kind of like an auxiliary verb.
No, they're still pronouns, not auxiliaries. This is a feature of, for instance, most spoken varieties of Northern Italy. For instance, Venetian:Me pàre l'è là che'l parla
. "My father is speaking." (Lit. "My father he's there that he speaks".)
Not how the masculine singular subject pronoun l
(shortened from ed
) is present in both clauses even though the first begins with a noun phrase.
This is also a feature of colloquial French, e.g. Louis XIV's famous dictum L'état, c'est moi!
This is conventionally translated as "I am the state", but literally it's "The state, it's me!"
I guess it makes sense now that I think about it that way. I just always thought of them as auxiliaries because they evolved from the Cakuacakuán endings which indicated tense, number, and person. They themselves were inspired by the Spanish endings, although in a slightly modified form.
For example, here is he present-tense conjugation of "kocinal" (to cook).
He is cooking. – Êo kocina. – E cuizina.
She is cooking. – Êa kocina. – E cuizina.
They (male/mix) are cooking. – Eno kocinani. – Eno cuizina.
They (female) are cooking. – Ena kocinani. – Ena cuizina.
I (male) am cooking. – Îo kocinâo. – O cuizina.
I (female) am cooking. – Îa kocinâo. – O cuizina.
We (male/mix) are cooking. – Emo kocinami. – Emo cuizina.
We (female) are cooking. – Ema kocinami. – Ema cuizina.
You (male sing.) are cooking. – Eto kocinati. – Eto cuizina.
You (female sing.) are cooking. – Eta kocinati. – Eta cuizina.
You (male/mix pl.) are cooking. – Eco kocinaci. – Eso cuizina.
You (female pl.) are cooking. – Eca kocinaci. – Esa cuizina.
And here's how the tense was determined, at least in terms of "-el" verbs. I don't know where the chart went that I had. :/
He read. (past tense) – Êo jéĉeua. – E jeche.
He is reading. – Êo jeĉe. – E jecha.
He will read. – Êo jéĉeue. – E jechi.