Duojjin

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Duojjin

Postby Rhamos Vhailejh » Sun 27 Dec 2009 6:09 am

While no one has yet stated any direct interest in Duojjin, I'm still going to discuss it here, as a large portion of the reason for my joining this site was to share my conlangs with a group of people who might actually be able to appreciate them. I'll be posting up lessons over the next while. I'll try to get as much of it finished tonight as I can, but there's a lot to be said. Each lesson will be in its own post. I hope no one minds.

PREFACE: ABOUT DUOJJIN
Duojjin is a heavily agglutinative language, loosely based on Finnish. The phonology is almost entirely based on Finnish, with some influence from Old Dwojin. I won't get into Old Dwojin here, since it's discontinued. However, it is still an interesting project and I may discuss it in the future. Duojjin has words derived from Finnish, Norwegian, Japanese, English, German, French, and Old Dwojin. However, most of the vocabulary is derived from my imagination. Finnish is the closest sounding language that I know of to Duojjin. Duojjin nouns, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, and verbs are all inflected with various cases. There is one set of cases shared by all types of words. They are classified as noun cases for the sake of simplicity, but they can affect any word type, and any number of cases can be applied to any one word. There is no requirement for any part of a sentence to "agree" with any other part of a sentence in Duojjin. There is no masculine or feminine nouns. There is no "a" or "the," the accusative and partitive cases serve this purpose. Verbs are inflected by various suffixes for tense. There is a present tense, a past tense, a future tense, and an infinitive tense (called the "tenseless tense" in Duojjin). There are also "progressive" versions of all of these verb suffixes (do to doing, etc). Most of these verb suffixes have three different versions that the speaker can choose from for any given word. There is also a set of negative verb suffixes. Verbs (as well as any other kind of word, but most commonly verbs) are also inflected with various suffixes/prefixes (at the discretion of the speaker) for different levels of surity (examples: might, would, could, probably, etc.)
The Duojjin alphabet is almost entirely phonetic, with a few odd exceptions and a small amount of ligatures (I hope I'm using that word right. I'm intending it to mean two letters read together as one, like "ei" or "au" or "th").
The Duojjin sentence order is OSV; Yoda-style. The performer of a verb is always attached to the verb, separated by an apostrophe. But we'll get into that later.

For now, on to lesson 1.

PS: Duojjin is still an in-the-works project. While it is largely complete, it is still subject to change. I will do my best to keep this guide as up-to-date as possible, should there ever be any changes made to Duojjin that would affect it.
~ Rhamos Vhailejh
Antellieksijim arrvvi'keödetval kyrrhessö'ällkunnön. Tuntooi'åhešška hänessa'etevåmus. Suuluejj køramiienjim tyysyvöl'työjennön.
Projects: Old Dwojin (discontinued), Modern Duojjin, Pзhowз, Elemental, and an unnamed conlang (hiatus)
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Re: Duojjin

Postby Rhamos Vhailejh » Sun 27 Dec 2009 8:32 am

LESSON 1: THE DUOJJIN ALPHABET

Duojjin has a 27 letter alphabet consisting of 17 consonants and 10 vowels. All of the diacritics and whatnot are not accented characters, but separate morphemes.

The full native Duojjin alphabet is:
ACDEGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVYÄÅÖØŠŊ

The extended Duojjin alphabet, which is used for writing names and words of foreign origin, is:
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVYZÄÅÏÖÒÓØŘŠŊΘÐÜ

The following should explain how to read the Duojjin alphabet. The format is Letter Upper/Lower Case: IPA - Explanation: Further explanation. Underlined letters in the explanation illustrate the sound being explained. I would also include the Duojjin names for the letters, but Duojjin doesn't have letter names as of yet. It's not very high priority on the to-do list.

Aa: ɑ or ɑː - car, par, start, taco: "aa" begets ɑː
Bb: b - bat, barrage, cab, tabernacle: Extended alphabet only
Cc: tʃ - chair, couch, scratch, catch
Dd: d - dare, do, dump, cad: "djj" begets dʒ (page)
Ee: ɛ or ɛː - pet, send, entertain, spent: "ee" begets ɛː
Ff: f - fill, for, calf, laugh: Extended alphabet only
Gg: g - gap, grace, gag, cog
Hh: h or ħ - house, horror, heap, heave: Becomes very emphatic when following an r
Ii: ɪ or i or iː - pin, tin, spin, hid: ɪ becomes i irregularly, with a very small amount of words
Jj: j or ʒ - yes, yesterday, yoyo, year: "jj" begets ʒ (pleasure). "djj" begets dʒ (cage)
Kk: k - car, crab, clock, karate
Ll: l - let, love, leer, lul
Mm: m - met, meet, merit, camp
Nn: n - net, neat, near, nap: "ng" begets ŋ. "nk" begets ŋk
Oo: o - oh, stove, toe, lone: "oo" begets oː
Pp: p - par, parrot, pop, stop
Qq: x - Kuchen (german), acht (german), loch (scottish), Bach (the musician): German-style CH. In handwritten Duojjin, a lower case Q should be written the same way as a capital Q, but the same size as a lower case O.
Rr: r - rouge (french), purra (finnish), terra (italian), Schmarrn (German): Trilled
Ss: s or z - sand, surface, span, scarce: When S appears at the beginning of a word it is read as a Z unless it is followed by a plosive consonant (p, k, t, etc).
Tt: t - tread, treat, told, cat: "th" does NOT beget ð or θ
Uu: u - food, lute, loot, moot: U is read as a W if it is followed by a vowel. (ie: Duojjin: dwoʒɪn)
Vv: v - very, vast, verile, virus
Yy - yksi (Finnish), chute (French), lyte (Swedish), blüte (German): "yy" begets yː
Ää: æ - cat, rap, hat, spam: "ää" begets æː
Åå: æi or ɑi or ʌi - like, my, spike, try: The three different pronunciations of this sound are allophones. It is entirely at the speaker's discretion which form to use at any given appearance of this letter. "åå" begets æiː or ɑiː or ʌiː, not æi-æi, ɑi-ɑi, or ʌi-ʌi.
Ïï: ɜ - bird, permanent, entertain, murmur: "ïï" begets ɜː. Extended alphabet only
Öö: ʊ - hook, took, rook, look: "öö" begets ʊː
Òò: œ - høne (Danish), øl (Norwegian), Hølle (German), kønny (Hungarian): "òò" begets œː. Extended alphabet only
Óó: ɒ - gone, Tom, broad, awe: "óó" begets ɒː. Extended alphabet only
Øø: oi or ɔi - toy, boy, coil, spoil: "øø" begets oiː or ɔiː, not "oi-oi." The various pronunciations of this character are allophones and the decision as to which one to use is entirely at the discretion of the speaker.
Řř: ɻ - red, run, ruse, roudy: Extended alphabet only
Šš: ʃ - share, cash, shred, shower
Ŋŋ: t̚ ˁn - gettin', pettin', settin', lettin': This sound strongly resembles the North American slang method of changing "ing" to "in'," not releasing the t, and eliminating the i and the g, effectively making words like "getting" pronounced like "gɛt̚n." This letter cannot be the first letter in a word.
Θθ: θ - thesis, theory, path, bath: Extended alphabet only
Ðð: ð - these, the, those, bathe: Extended alphabet only
Üü: ʌ - nut, luck, rut, pumpkin: Extended alphabet only

A double consonant represents aspiration. Any syllable containing a double consonant or a double vowel is stressed.

"ei" begets what is the "ay" combination in English, and "e" on the IPA. (day, pay, etc)

LESSON 1B: STRESS ORDER

Every other syllable is stressed. If any given word should begin with its first syllable stressed or unstressed is entirely up to the speaker. Every word in a sentence does not have to have the same stress order. Double consonants and double vowels override the pattern. For example (assuming x is stressed and o is unstressed). Let's say you have a six syllable word. One could either say it using xoxoxo, or oxoxox. However, if the first syllable contains a double consonant or a double vowel, then one must use the xoxoxo stress order. If however, the second syllable contains a double consonant or a double vowel, then one must use the oxoxox stress order. If the fifth syllable contains a double consonant or double vowel, then one must use the xoxoxo stress order to facilitate the double lettered syllable. But what if say, the second and fifth syllables both have double consonants or double vowels? In this case, one would use the standard facilitating stress order, however the fifth syllable, normally being unstressed, will become stressed; creating a stress order of oxoxxx. But this isn't right. Three straight stressed syllables? No. So we take one of the regularly stressed syllables to either side of the irregularly stressed syllable and change it to unstressed. Which syllable becomes unstressed is at the discretion of the speaker. So if the second and fifth syllables of a word have double consonants or double vowels, then the stress order will become oxoxxo or oxooxo, whichever one the speaker feels more comfortable with.

I'll give you an example.
Kyrrhessö'ällkunnön. This word means "everyone is born," in the infinitive. This word has six syllables. kyrr-hess-ö-äll-kun-nön. Our first syllable has a double r. So we know to start out with we'll be using the xoxoxo stress order. The second syllable also has a double s. So this syllable has to be stressed too. So at this point, our stress order is xxxoxo. We can't have three straight x's or three straight o's. So we have to get rid of one of those Xs. We can't get rid of the middle one. That's the rule. So we have to get rid of either the left one or the right one. We can't get rid of the left one, because that one has the double r. So that only leaves us with the right one, which has no double letters, so it's free to be unstressed. Now we've gone three syllables into our word and our stress order is xxoxox at this point. Our next syllable, äll, has a double l. So it has to be stressed. But our stress order already has this syllable as being stressed, so we don't need to worry about it. Just make sure you aspirate the l. Coming up to the final part of the word, "kunnön;" one might think because of the two n's that this next syllable should be stressed. However, the two n's are in two different syllables: kun-nön. So no stressing is necessary, and we can continue the default pattern throughout the rest of the word. So now we have our complete stress order: xxoxox. When a vowel appears in a syllable all by its lonesome, it can be minimalized, but it doesn't have to be.

J is the only consonant not affected by the double consonant stressing. A double J does not indicate aspiration or stress. JJ follows the regular stress order patterns, and remains unstressed even when appearing on an o syllable instead of an x syllable. Example: hänessaejj: This word means "they" in the partitive case. It has four syllables: hän-ess-a-ejj. The default stress order is xoxo. However, the second syllable has a double s. So we will use oxox instead. The last syllable has a double J. But that does NOT mean we have to stress it. So with no further modifications to make, we can continue with the default pattern until the end of the word: oxox, which does kind of result in the JJ syllable being stressed, but NOT because of the double J.

Another example. Hänejj. This word means "he/she" in the partitive. It has two syllables: hän-ejj. The default stress order is xo. The first syllable has no double letters, so we can continue to the second syllable. The second syllable, ejj, does have a double letter. So normally we would have to make this syllable stressed, resulting in an ox stress order. However, the double letter is a J, so this is not necessary. The stress order can remain as xo.

Generally speaking, one makes the first syllable in a word stressed if they can. So a word like hänejj, which can be read as either xo or ox, one would generally use the xo stress order. However, this is not exactly a "rule" per-say. One can use the ox stress order for hänejj. There could be several variables leading to one's decision for the stress order for these kinds of words. Variables like the stress order for the rest of the sentence, or comfort with morphemes or one word sentences.

I think that about covers it for the Duojjin alphabet. The next lesson will be pronouns.
~ Rhamos Vhailejh
Antellieksijim arrvvi'keödetval kyrrhessö'ällkunnön. Tuntooi'åhešška hänessa'etevåmus. Suuluejj køramiienjim tyysyvöl'työjennön.
Projects: Old Dwojin (discontinued), Modern Duojjin, Pзhowз, Elemental, and an unnamed conlang (hiatus)
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Re: Duojjin

Postby Rhamos Vhailejh » Sun 27 Dec 2009 12:34 pm

LESSON 2: PRONOUNS AND PLURALS

LESSON 2A: SINGULAR PRONOUNS

Pronouns behave much more like nouns in Duojjin than typical pronouns in English. They do not have separate forms for subject or object (like in English: I (subject) and me (object)). They can be omitted when they are understood through context, like in Japanese. All pronouns behave with 100% regularity. The words "this" and "that" have different forms when used as pronouns and when used as adjectives or adverbs.

1st person: sei (I/me)
2nd person: tei (you)
3rd person animate: hän (he/she)
3rd person inanimate: dei (it)
This (noun): jatta
That (noun): jotta
This (adj/adv): ta- (prefix)
That (adj/adv): to- (prefix)
Understood person: ii/ji (I/me/you/he/she/it/they/we/us/this/that)

The performer of a verb (very often a pronoun) is always attached to the verb and separated by an apostrophe, with the verb performer on the left of the apostrophe and the verb on the right. As in the sentence "Dein sei'mielihin." This brings us to a need for an explanation of the accusative case, but we'll get to that shortly. But anyway, "dein sei'mielihin" means "I want it." "Dein" means it in the accusative case, "sei" means "I," and "mielihin" means want in the present tense; it I want. Sei is the performer of the verb mieli, so sei and mieli are put together with an apostrophe. This is the case even if the performer of a verb is a noun: djjjøra'palonön (the tower burns).

The Understood Person (ii) is a pronoun used as a replacement for the performer of a verb when the performer of the verb is already known. When ii appears as the first word in a sentence, it changes to ji. For example, observe this dialogue between A and B:

A: "Špeikujjöhöl sei'åjaanen, niin ii'kålinen." (I went on an adventure, and I liked [it])
B: "Ji'adhisteiŋ?" (Were you scared?)
A: "Ski. Anteljim ii'jaksike." (No. I felt free.)
B: "Sei'joŋadhisteimus. (I would be scared.)
A: "Ji'joŋ. Mirriessaen ii'adhisteimaa vana." (You would be. You're even afraid of cats.)

Don't be concerned if you don't understand most of the Duojjin in this dialogue. At this point we're just looking at the pronouns. In this dialogue, the first verb performer appearing is "sei," being speaker A, establishing "ii" as being speaker A. So when speaker A then proceeds to say "ii'kålinen" (I liked), it's understood that ii means I. In the second line, speaker B says "Ji'adhisteiŋ?" (Were you scared?") The word "ii" becomes "ji" when it appears at the beginning of the sentence, so when speaker B says "ji," s/he does mean "ii." Because "ii" has been established as meaning speaker A in the previous sentence, the translation of "ii" in speaker B's sentence is "you," as opposed to the second half of speaker A's sentence, where it meant "I." Speaker A then goes on to explain how s/he felt free during his/her adventure. "Ji" is still established as meaning speaker A, so in his sentence (the third line), "ii" means "I," because it is still referring to speaker A. But now speaker B responds saying that s/he would be scared; "sei'joŋadhisteimus." Speaker B has just used a pronoun other than ii. "Sei" means "I," and speaker B is the one who said it, so now "ii" means "speaker B" until someone uses another pronoun. Speaker A then says "ii'joŋ" (you would be). "Ji" is in reference to speaker B now, so "ii" is translated as "you" in this sentence. If a pluralized pronoun becomes the subject of "ii," then the plural is included in its meaning. "Ji" does not have to be pluralized to reference a pluralized pronoun.
Note: If you didn't notice, I'm using the Duojjin method for writing the word "ii," by changing it to "ji" when it appears at the beginning of the sentence. The whole reason for the shift is so you don't have a capital and lower case "i" next to each other because that just looks weird. So it would just make sense to carry that trend into English when using those words. Also, the change in the spelling of the word is reflected in its pronunciation. Ji is pronounced yee, and ii is pronounced ee. The i is still a long i in ji, even though there isn't two of them. This is one of the few irregular words in Duojjin.
Extra Note: There is no rule that says that one has to use the Understood Person pronoun. The above dialogue could just as easily take place without the use of the word ii. This is what that dialogue would look like:

A: "Špeikujjöhöl sei'åjaanen, niin sei'kålinen."
B: "Tei'adhisteiŋ?"
A: "Ski. Anteljim sei'jaksike."
B: "Sei'joŋadhisteimus.
A: "Tei'joŋ. Mirriessaen tei'adhisteimaa vana."

You may notice that the word dei (it) is missing from "niin sei'kålinen" (and I liked it). This is because dei is already understood by context. What else would speaker A be saying that he liked other than his adventure? The pronoun in line 3 could also be omitted for this reason. So you don't even have to say it. A literal translation of the above dialogue would look like this:

A: Adventure-a-for I-go-did, and I-like-did. (For an adventure I went, and I liked)
B: You-fear-was? (You afraid were?)
A: No. Free-adj I-feel-did. (No. Free I felt.)
A: I-would-fear-be. (I would afraid be.)
A: You-would. Cat-s-of you-fear-do even. (You would. Of cats you're afraid, even.)

LESSON 2B: PLURALS AND PLURAL PRONOUNS

Duojjin has two sets of plurals, the Positive Plural set and the Negative plural set. Each set has four forms. Plurals can be put on nouns, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, verbs, whatever. If you were paying real close attention before, and if you love kitties, you may have noticed that somewhere in the word "mirriessaen" is the word for cat. I'll use that word to help explain the plural forms, since having a noun to pluralize would help in that venue. The Duojjin word for cat is mirri.

The Positive Plurals:
Nominative: -essa (mirriessa: cats)
Fractive: -essu (mirriessu: some of the cats)
Suprafractive: -essy (mirriessy: most of the cats)
Completive: -essö (mirriessö: all of the cats)

The Negative Plurals:
Nominative: -ešša (mirriešša: none of the cat)
Fractive: -eššu (mirrieššu: some of the cat/a piece of the cat)
Suprafractive: -eššy (mirrieššy: most of the cat)
Completive: -eššö (mirrieššö: the entire cat)

These plural forms can be applied to the pronouns given in Lesson 2A (except for ii).

Positive:
1st person: seiessa (us), seiessu (some of us), seiessy (most of us), seiessö (all of us)
2nd person: teiessa (you (plural)), teiessu (some of you), teiessy (most of you), teiessö (all of you)
3rd person A: hänessa (them/they), hänessu (some of them), hänessy (most of them), hänessö (all of them)
3rd person I: deiessa (them/they), deiessu (some of them), deiessy (most of them), deiessö (all of them)

Negative:
1st person: seiešša (none of me), seieššu (some of me), seieššy (most of me), seieššö (all of me)
2nd person: teiešša (all of you (singular)), teieššu (some of you (singular)), teieššy (most of you (singular)), teieššö (all of you (singular))
3rd Person A: hänešša (none of him/her), häneššu (some of him/her), häneššy (most of him/her) häneššö (all of him/her)
3rd Person I: deiešša (none of it), deieššu (some of it), deieššy (most of it), deieššö (all of it)

I realize that these negative forms can't really be called plural in the strictest sense of the word, since they denote one or less than one. But in Duojjin, "more" and "less" are viewed as "sister elements" so to speak, and they are classified together.

Note: The "e" at the beginning of all of the plural forms can be optionally dropped when the plural suffix is directly proceeding a vowel. So "seiessa" could be "seissa," or "mirriessö" could be "mirrissö," or "teieššö" could be "teiššö."

I believe that should just about wrap it up for pronouns and plurals. The next lesson will focus on verb conjugation and simple sentence structure, and I'll introduce a few vocabulary words.
~ Rhamos Vhailejh
Antellieksijim arrvvi'keödetval kyrrhessö'ällkunnön. Tuntooi'åhešška hänessa'etevåmus. Suuluejj køramiienjim tyysyvöl'työjennön.
Projects: Old Dwojin (discontinued), Modern Duojjin, Pзhowз, Elemental, and an unnamed conlang (hiatus)
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Re: Duojjin

Postby Rhamos Vhailejh » Wed 30 Dec 2009 4:35 am

LESSON 3: VERBS AND VOCABULARY

LESSON 3A: VOCABULARY
Before we get into the verbs of Duojjin, I'm going to introduce a few simple vocabulary words so we've got something to work with for example sentences.

here: tele
there: siita
say: puhu / jjin
go: åjaa
come: tulla
house: huo
person: kyrrh
cat: mirri (because everybody loves kitties. =^.^=)

LESSON 3B: VERBS
For the most part, verbs are always the last word of a Duojjin sentence. However, due to Duojjin's flexible sentence order (which I'll get into in a later lesson), adverbs are allowed to be placed after the verb they modify instead of before it, but normally they're placed before, so verbs are normally the last word in a sentence.

In Duojjin, any noun can become a verb by adding the appropriate verb suffix. Even adjectives can be verbs. There are also several verb-only words like go (åjaa), or come (tulla). You can even apply more than one verb suffix to the end of a verb.

Verbs are inflected for tense, progression, and positive/negative.

There are two kinds of verbs in Duojjin. Do verbs and Be verbs. A verb is created merely by applying the appropriate suffix to the word that you want to verbify.

Positive TO DO Verb Suffixes:
Present Tense: (ihi)n / (i)han / te / nå :: Progressive: ihun
Past Tense: nen / lin / ke :: Progressive: nun / lun
Future Tense: (j)ar / aks / kor :: Progressive: jupi/uks
Tenseless: (n)ön / maa / ska / ihin :: Progressive: njyy

Negative TO DO Verb Suffixes:
Present Tense: (ö)hyön / skin / hinå :: Progressive: ihen(t)
Past Tense: (n)än / lan / kön :: Progressive: nån
Future Tense: jäki / äks / rök(t) :: Progressive: jåa
Tenseless: nein / mån / (ö)škör :: Progressive: nöin

Yes, "ihin" is supposed to be there twice. The present tense can be used for the infinitive (but only the ihin form), and the h cannot be elided when doing so. Not really done that often.

You'll notice that several of the letters in the chart above are in brackets. These bracketed letters can be elided at the discretion of the speaker. The general rule is suffixes that begin with a vowel (but only the ones in brackets) elide the initial vowel if the word it is attached to ends in a vowel, and suffixes that begin with consonants (but only the ones in brackets) are elided if the word it is attached to ends in a consonant. You'll notice that the first form of present tense positive has three letters contained within brackets. This is because ihin can be shortened to hin, and also to in, and also to just n. Once again, this is all entirely at the discretion of the speaker (you'll note this as a recurring motif throughout Duojjin inflection).

You'll also notice there are a variety of forms for each tense, separated by slashes. It is, once again, at the discretion of the speaker (or writer) to decide which form to use at any given time. There are a few reasons for this. Duojjin verbs are really rather simple, and without a variety of forms would result in almost every sentence ending in a very small variety of ways. Also, Duojjin's optional inflection "system" tries to keep music in mind. Several of these inflections (and abbreviations which I suppose I'll have to get to in a later lesson) are in place for the sake of Duojjin being able to fit and follow well with a melody, as Duojjin sentences can have a tendency to be rather syllable heavy. It's also for the sake of my own personal messed up sense of vowel and consonant harmony, and others' personal messed up sense of vowel and consonant harmony; I like the idea of speakers being able to choose whichever form works for them. Perhaps a form which I find difficult to say, someone else may find easier.

Before we move on to the TO BE verb suffixes, I'll show you how these are used to make verbs. Just keep in mind that the performer of any verb is always attached to the verb, separated by an apostrophe, with the performer on the left of the apostrophe. The entire word encompassing a verb, including the attached performer and/or suffix(es), is counted as one verb word. I'll come back to this after a few examples.

full word duojjin || components duojjin == components english == full word english
tullahin || tulla + hin == come + do(PresPos) == come
hän'tullahun || hän + tulla + hun == s/he + come + do(PresPosProg) == s/he is coming -or- s/he is on their way
sei'åjaanun || sei + åjaa + nun == I + go + do(PastNeg) == I did not go
kyrrhessa'puhumaa || kyrrh + essa + puhu + maa == person + nom. plural + say + do(InftvPos) = people say
Some full sentence examples:
Tele tullahin. || tele tulla + hin == here come + do(PresPos) == Come here.
Tele hän'tullahun. || tele hän + tulla + hun == here s/he + come + do(PresPosProg) == S/He is coming here. -or- S/He is on their way.
Siita sei'åjaanun. || siita sei + åjaa + nun == there I + go + do(PastNeg) == I did not go there.
Kyrrhessa'tojjinnön. || kyrrh + essa + to + jjin + nön == person + nom. plural + that(adverbial prefix) + say + do(Inftv+Pos) = People say that.
Siita hän'åjaaar || siita hän + åjaa + jar == there s/he + go + do (FutrPos) == S/He will go there.

This is what I meant when I said the whole verb counts as one word. The sentence "Tele hän'tullahin" counts as two words, not three. "hän'tullahin" is the verb. "Tele" is the object. Tele could be further specified with noun cases, but these are simple sentences, and as such they're ultimately unnecessary, and do not have to be included. However, for purposes of word length the word to either side of the apostrophe are counted separately. For example, "sei'åjaanön" does not count as being a longer word than "tullanun." Because the "sei" in "sei'åjaanön" doesn't count for word length. For the record, the longest word in Duojjin so far (that I know of) is "pälläkeivaheisessaešška," which means "by the aggressors."

You'll notice that the bottom half of the above examples are labeled as "full sentences." However, some of the top half example words like, well, all of them, can count as a legal full sentence in Duojjin.

The TO BE verbs function in the same way as the TO DO verbs, except they mean be instead of do. Obviously. :P

Positive TO BE Verb Suffixes:
Present Tense: (m)ei / sa / to :: Progressive: miin / kiin
Past Tense: men / sen / ten / ŋ :: Progressive: mun
Future Tense: jäpi / po / rä / tyr :: Progressive: jeirpo
Tenseless: mus / mei / mat / ci(k) :: Progressive: mos

Negative TO BE Verb Suffixes:
Present Tense: (m)eiä / myr / mjå :: Progressive: meiå
Past Tense: (m)äl / jem / tra :: Progressive: mål
Future Tense: ko / kra / tråa :: Progressive: krå
Tenseless: mäs / met / trell :: Progressive: mås

Yes, "mei" is supposed to be there twice. The present tense can be used for the infinitive (but only the mei form), and the m cannot be elided when doing so. Done much more commonly with the TO BE verbs than with the TO DO verbs.

To conclude this lesson on Duojjin verbs, I'll throw you a few more example sentences with the vocabulary we've learned so far.

Oh, and I just remembered. I forgot to include the possessive suffix in the pronouns lesson. The possessive suffix is -na. (seina, teina, hänna, deina, etc.) The possessive suffix comes before plurals (seinaessa, teinaessa, hännaessa, deinaessa, etc. Could be inflected to seinassa, teinassa, hännassa, deinassa, etc.). In Duojjin, words regarding possession or ownership are never expressed with a TO BE verb form because, from a Duojjin mindset, possession and ownership are things that we do, not things that are.

Sei'mirrici. || sei + mirri + cik == I + cat + is(InftvPos) == I am (a) cat.
Tamirri'seinan. || ta + mirri + sei + na + hin == this(prefix) + cat + I + possessive + do(PresInftvPos) == This is my cat. (could also be "Jatta mirri'seinamei.")
Jotta hän'puhulan. || jotta hän + puhu + lan == that s/he + say + do(PastNeg) == S/he didn't say that. (could also be "Hän'topuhulan.")
Tahuomei. || ta + huo + mei == this(prefix) + house + is(PresPos) == It's this house.
Dei'seinalin, ii'teinahin. = dei + sei + na + lin , ii + tei + na + hin == it + I + possessive + do(PastPos) , it + you + possessive + do(PresPos) == It was mine, it is (now) yours.
~ Rhamos Vhailejh
Antellieksijim arrvvi'keödetval kyrrhessö'ällkunnön. Tuntooi'åhešška hänessa'etevåmus. Suuluejj køramiienjim tyysyvöl'työjennön.
Projects: Old Dwojin (discontinued), Modern Duojjin, Pзhowз, Elemental, and an unnamed conlang (hiatus)
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Re: Duojjin

Postby Tikolm » Sat 16 Jun 2012 12:37 am

I don't have anything in particular to say, and I know this thread is old, but Duojjin is just too interesting of a conlang not to garner interest from anyone and I thought this thread needed some interest. :)
That was also a really long sentence. :P
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Re: Duojjin

Postby Täzari » Mon 26 May 2014 1:59 pm

Tikolm wrote:I don't have anything in particular to say, and I know this thread is old, but Duojjin is just too interesting of a conlang not to garner interest from anyone and I thought this thread needed some interest. :)
That was also a really long sentence. :P


I completely agree with Tikolm!
Duojjin is indeed incredibly interesting! In particular I like its agglutinative aspect and I wish you will post some other informations about it, even though this thread is old... I too am working on my conlang Lözusöteli which, in its evolution, is moving from being a mostly flessive language to being a more agglutinative one... So I think that reading your posts would be very stimulating! I hope to hear from you!

Tzkæzakot elbike te śui galgad op æpsekitai sü! - Write again about your language because I want to learn more! =)
Ræhaktæśede enśké är hvå debbéś lit kæbbtera.

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